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Charge-Coupled Device


Development of Principles for Creating and a Process for Manufacturing a High Sensitivity X-ray Apparatus Based on Charge-Coupled Devices

Tech Area / Field

  • INS-DET/Detection Devices/Instrumentation

3 Approved without Funding

Registration date

Leading Institute
Kurchatov Research Center, Russia, Moscow

Supporting institutes

  • MIFI, Russia, Moscow\nNII Pulsar, Russia, Moscow\nNPO Elas OPTECS (Optical-Electronic Complexes and Systems), Russia, Moscow

Project summary

The aim of this project is to develop principles of creation and technology of manufacture of high sensitive digital filmless X-ray apparatus based on CCD for use in the medical establishments of various specializations.

The problems that have led to the necessity of development of the project are given below.

X-ray examinations of all organs and parts of body are carried out in most medical treatment and diagnostic clinics. For this purpose the traditional technology of X-ray images taking on X-ray sensitive films is used. This technology demands applying of high energy X-ray radiation that is necessary for film exposure; a lot of time and material expenditures for the process of photochemical development; using of expensive silver-containing materials. X-ray films storage in archives requires a lot of place, retrieval of the documents takes a lot of time, losses of X-ray films are very possible during their storage and delivery.

Digital filmless X-ray technology is being intensively developing in highly developed countries. In this respect the following products can be marked: computerized X-ray installations for stomatology based on CCD receiver with the resolution of 256 ґ 256 pixels (Trophy, France), "Sens-A-Ray" similar installation (Trophonor Invest AD, Sweden). In comparison with the conventional X-ray apparatus these installations allow to decrease the dose of radiation in 5-8 times. The system based on hybrid assembly of CCD chips for early cancer diagnosis is being developed by NASA engineers. The chips are arranged under the windows of the lead filter, the full image is synthesized in a computer as a result of four separate location measurements. It should be specially marked out the founding of a new company - "Trixell" established by Siemens (Germany), Philips (Holland) and Thomson (France) companies. The company was founded specially for creating in 1998 of solid-state plate X-ray image converter for digital radiovideography. There are also a number of projects based on mechanical scanning of the CCD scale along the examined surface. But the projects of this kind are not in the scope of this document.

Domestic element base and the level of Russian scientists and engineers qualification allow to develop a new technology for creation of CCD X-ray apparatus both for stomatology and for other medical appliances (fluorography, orthopedics, cardiology etc.) that, at present, do not have such apparatus.

High resolution, significantly lower dose of radiation absorbed by patients and medical personnel, no need in use of expensive silver-containing films and photochemical processes of their development, real-time imaging and the possibility of their digital processing and storage in electronic archives - all this makes the suggested project extremely topical for all medical establishments that use X-ray sensitive apparatus for diagnostics and treatment in their day-to-day practical activity.

Solution of the suggested task will contribute to:

- conversion of a number of defense enterprises that will have the opportunity to use their potential in the field of medical instrument engineering and namely for development of diagnostic X-ray apparatus;
- support of the fundamental and application research and projects for peace purposes using the experience in the field of atomic energy researches, X-ray and electronic technologies for the needs of modern healthcare and medicine.

Extreme topicality and interest of scientists from many highly developed countries and of foreign companies to the suggested project will contribute joining the efforts of scientists and engineers engaged in weapons development in Russia with international scientific community. In long-term perspective the project will contribute to professional activity in the field of healthcare and medicine.

The project can be fulfilled by a group of 34 employees for 2 years and 9 months. The group consists of scientists and engineers engaged in the fields of optical and X-ray highly sensitive systems on the base of solid-state receivers, mathematical software and X-ray images processing, methods of X-ray technology application in medicine. The members of the group have 6 monographs and are the organizers of 2 International conferences on the mentioned subjects.

The methodology is based on the development of technology, creation and experimental adjustment of the X-ray sensitive converter based on matrix CCD.

X-ray high sensitive digital filmless apparatus is created on the base of an X-ray sensitive camera with a digital output. The camera senses X-ray emission, ensures quality space discretization with each pixel rigid fixation, converts signals into digital form and inputs them in a computer. Special electronic envelope allows improving the technical characteristics of the camera.

The energy required for taking quality images is considerably reduced due to the high camera sensitivity and, as a result, the dose of radiation decreases more than in 10 times.

After the data have been sent to computer the operation passes to the program modules that fulfill the preliminary data processing; source image preparations and video output by means of computer display; secondary processing of the received image in accordance with the theme tasks; binding of the taken images to the history of illness; their compression and storage; output on paper of both text and graphic information.

Expected results:

In the course of the project the technology of creation and experimental adjustment of the CCD X-ray sensitive converter will be developed.

1. Fundamental and experimental research of the CCD X-ray receivers will be carried out;
2. Operating mock-up of the X-ray stomatologic apparatus based on matrix CCD, X-ray radiator and computer with the special software will be created:

- dose of radiation is in 10-15 times less than it is for traditional apparatus;
- resolutions is not worse than 0.06 mm;
- preliminary cost is in 1.5 times less than it is for analogous western apparatus;

3. Laboratory mock-up of the CCD X-ray sensitive receiver of large format (for 150 ґ 150 -300 ґ 300 mm images) designed for the broad specter of X-ray apparatus of various medical applications will be created;
4. Estimation effectiveness research of the proposed mathematical methods of X-ray images and diagnosis processing will be carried out (there will be investigated different techniques of image contrasting, scaling, contouring, quantity measurements of the image in the computer etc.);
5. Data on quality of X-ray image in the computer and after its output on the standard printer will be obtained (expected quality of the image: CCD chip resolution - 512 ґ 512 pixels, number of gray color shades - 64 - 256);
6. Test and clinical trails of X-ray apparatus will be carried out.

We would be glad if foreign specialists take part in the work and discussions of the project's results.


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