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Biological Processes in Electrosurgery

#0398


Theoretical and Experimental Researches of Physical and Biological Processes in the Region of Discharge for High-frequency Elecrosurgery and Development of Methods for Control of those Processes to Ensure the Optimal Regimes of Surgical Action.

Tech Area / Field

  • MED-DID/Diagnostics & Devices/Medicine

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
04.05.1995

Leading Institute
MIFI, Russia, Moscow

Supporting institutes

  • Russian State Medical University, Russia, Moscow\nNIIIT (Pulse Techniques), Russia, Moscow

Collaborators

  • Universität Ulm / Institut für Lasertechnologien in der Medizin und Messtechnik, Germany, Ulm

Project summary

Proposed project is devoted to development of methods and technical means for further improvement of medical equipment in the field of high-frequency electrosurgery. The subject of the project belongs to the category of applied researches and engineering for medicine, that corresponds to the subjects of works supported by ISTC, and, hence, to the purposes of ISTC.

At present, the devices for electronic high-frequency electrosurgery are widely used in medical practice for various surgical operations. The very important advantages of the high-frequency electrosurgical instruments, when compared with laser and plasma scalpels, are small weight, size, and power consumption. Besides, there is no need in water cooling and gas supply systems. A large number of various commercial instruments are now produced by many well-known firms in the USA, Japan, Germany and other countries.

There are many publications devoted to development of high-frequency electrosurgical instrumentation and its use in practical medicine. However many important and principal problems of operation of these devices still remain insufficiently investigated. In particular, as follows from the available publications, the processes of burn up and maintenance of the electric discharge (the electric arc) in vicinity of the active electrode as well as formation of plasma torch between the electrode and live tissue have not been researched enough. Mechanism of plasma impact on tissue is also considered insufficiently in the publications.

The purpose of the project is to investigate the processes in the discharge between the electrode and patient live tissue, to research on impact of the plasma torch on tissue and to solve the problem of the plasma mode control for optimization of the factors of surgical impact. Solution of these complicated tasks requires a team of specialists of high qualification in various fields, first of all in plasma physics, physics of arc, electronics, electronic engineering, and medicine, particularly in electrosurgery. This team for implementation of the project was formed from scientists and engineers from the participating institutions. Participating institutions, mentioned above, have not only high scientific potential, but also posses the unique experimental base that is necessary to solve the complex task proposed.

The expected results of the project can be formulated as follows.

Physical and biological processes in the gap between the electrode and patient tissue in high-frequency electrosurgery will be investigated. Namely: the conditions for the electric discharge burn up and maintenance in the gap, as well as the plasma state in the discharge. Parameters and features of the plasma, as one of the main factors affecting the tissue in cutting and coagulation regimes, will be investigated. Mathematical, physical, and biological models for processes both in the electrode-tissue gap and in the adjacent region of tissue will be developed. Methods of plasma state control aimed at achievement of the most effective regimes of surgical effect during operation will be developed basing on comprehensive investigation of the processes in the discharge region. Experimental models of improved medical equipment for electrosurgery based on the methods and technical means of plasma state control will be designed. Surgical operation techniques using the improved instrumentation will be developed as well.

Special physical installations and methods of experimental investigations will be used to provide quantitative determination of all the factors affecting the nature of electrosurgical impact.

The total volume of the work on the project - 336 man-months.


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The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) is an intergovernmental organization connecting scientists from Kazakhstan, Armenia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia with their peers and research organizations in the EU, Japan, Republic of Korea, Norway and the United States.

 

ISTC facilitates international science projects and assists the global scientific and business community to source and engage with CIS and Georgian institutes that develop or possess an excellence of scientific know-how.

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