Detonation of Liquid Homogeneous Materials
On the Capability of Liquid Homogeneous Materials to Detonate
Tech Area / Field
- PHY-NGD/Fluid Mechanics and Gas Dynamics/Physics
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Genisaretskaya S V
Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russia, Moscow reg., Chernogolovka
- McGill University / Department of Mechanical Engineering, Canada, QC, Montreal
Project summaryFour limits of liquid explosive detonation are known: shock initiation of detonation, the limit being characterized by a critical (minimum) shock pressure PCR still capable to initiate detonation; detonation front kinetic instability, the limit being characterized by the appearance of the front's pulsations for the manifestation at the limit of slow kinetics of the explosive's energy release within the front; detonation propagation, the limit being characterized by a minimum (critical) diameter of the charge at which the detonation can still propagate, and last limit - the detonation limit on concentration (DLC) of explosives' mixtures with inert diluents. The first three limits have been investigated in details before, the investigation results have been published in many papers and two monographs. As for DLC it essentially has not been investigated yet. Moreover the knowledge obtained in the course of investigations of three foregoing limits testifies that available experimental methods of DLC's determination are improper.
The goal of the project proposal is scientific substantiation and development of the method of measuring true (absolute) limits of detonation of liquid explosives mixtures with inert diluents and suggestion of the way, based on the method, for the evaluation of capability to detonate of any liquid energy-containing materials.
The project concerns the combination of basic and applied researches. Two corresponding results are expected. Expected basic result consists in the substantiation of the idea introduced in the project that the true concentration limit of liquid explosive's detonation corresponds to the concentration at which the detonation's PCJ equals with the detonation's PCR, so that the explosive's detonation can not be initiated in principle even at a small further decrease of the explosive's concentration. It will be also substantiated experimentally that popular notion on liquid explosive DLC according to which the value of failure diameter of explosive's detonation tends to infinity as explosive's concentration nears DLC is not true, that at certain conditions liquid explosives can detonate even at smaller concentrations, that is their true DLC is at their smaller concentration. Expected applied result consists in the development of a principally new method for determination of DLC. On the base of the method experimental way of determination of capability to detonate of any liquid energy-containing materials will be also proposed.
Investigations of concentration limits of liquid energy-containing mixtures' detonation are aimed at further development of the theory of detonation limits in general. These investigation are also directly bound up with elaboration of safe conditions of potentially explosion-dangerous liquids' production, storage and transportation. It should be mentioned that some experiments on the project's problems have been already performed and their results testify that basic expectation of the project are quite realistic.
The project proposed directly corresponds to the ISTC Goals and Objectives since:
- gives the scientists and engineers dealt with weapons the opportunity to perform investigations for peaceful purposes;
- touches the problem of environmental factors;
- encourages the integration of scientists of the Union of independent countries into international scientific association.
To attain basic results of the project's investigations such liquid explosives and diluents for them as well as such liquid fuels and oxidizers for them will be chosen so that their mixtures could detonate in sufficiently large range of their concentration and the luminescence of their detonation front would be sufficiently bright to observe the front using high-speed photography. In this case the mixtures' components, technologically available in kilograms and ten-kilograms quantities, chemically stable, sufficiently inert each to other, little-toxic and low-sensitive for safe handling with them will be chosen with the use of thermochemical calculations and experimental investigations of enthalpy formation of a wide range of energy-containing systems (about some tens). The components chosen will be characterized by measurements of their densities, indexes of refraction and their ability to keep the properties in time. For each system chosen (no less than four) preliminary evaluation of their DLC will be carried on using some brisantometer, and the structure of detonation waves' front in its dependence on systems' concentration will be investigated for each system using high-speed photography and electromagnetic method of registration of time-profiles of shock and detonation waves, the structure will being investigated for 1 - 2 systems using interferometric method (VIZAR). To determine DLC dependences on concentration (no less than 4 - 5 values) of PCR(C) as well as PCJ(C) will be measured for each system. And finally the value of detonation failure diameter in its dependence on concentration will be measured for some 1 - 2 systems chosen to demonstrate that it tends to infinity at the system's concentration larger than that corresponding to its detonation true concentration limit.
Consistent with the scope of activities of the project exchange of information with foreign collaborators and discussion of results obtained are proposed.
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