Environmentally Pure Solid Fuel
Development of Environmentally Pure and Effective Heat Source Based on Solid Carbon Hydride Fuel
Tech Area / Field
- NNE-FUE/Fuels/Non-Nuclear Energy
3 Approved without Funding
VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov
- Krzhizhanovsky Energetics Institute, Russia, Moscow
The goal of the Project is to study and create pilot samples (briquettes) of heat sources based on solid carbon hydride raw material safe for humans and environment, having calorific capacity of no less than 7000 kcal/kg. The principally important stipulation is to study flameless (oxidation) process of heat generation at rather low temperatures within oxidation area, not exceeding 600°C, which guarantees complete combustion and absence of nitrogen and carbon oxides in combustion products.
The proposed solid-phase heat sources can be used to solve the following problems:
– emergency heating of living and industrial premises;
– utilization and processing of waste heat sources and transformation of the same into effective and environmentally pure fuel;
– effective implementation of natural restorable heat sources;
– creation of effective and environmentally pure autonomous heating systems for living and industrial premises in northern areas.
The most acute today is the problem of emergency heating of living premises in winter time for the systems of central heating, especially when the system of hot water feeding is broken.
Of no less urgency is the problem of elimination of discarded nitrogen oxides and aerosols in the atmosphere, resulting from carbon or fuel oil combustion in boiler-houses producing hot water for heating purposes.
Finally, availability in the northern region of proper restorable heat sources with the effectiveness close to the same of liquid fuel can significantly relax the problem of life security in the distant northern regions.
The enlisted problems can be solved by the development being proposed.
Investigation activities have to scientifically determine the optimum selection of solid fuel components, activation methods and removal of undesirable admixtures. They also have to reveal the nature of stable oxidation of different mixtures, determine the composition of ejected gases and coordinate their concentration with sanitary services. Development of methods to activate solid fuel will require substantial study as to the types of effects, optimization of their power characteristics and effectiveness of consequences, both from power engineering and environmental viewpoint.
Optimization objective is to achieve maximum power effectiveness at minimum expenses, as well as meeting present-day environmental requirements.
Optimization of composition and the technology to make initial components is to result in full-scale samples of solid fuel with power effectiveness close to liquid carbon hydrides, and with higher environmental and economic characteristics.
The results of project- related activities will yield the initial data for Technical Proposal on designing and production of the facilities to manufacture solid phase heat sources based on local raw materials.
Of separate practical interest are research activities aimed at creation of enterprises capable of solving the problem of heating for the northern areas independently with their sources involved.
Survey of associated literature on solid heat sources revealed the real possibility of implementation of natural coals or activated coal. A set of catalysts is rather wide, so selection of the proper one will depend on economic expediency and availability at production area. Specific calorific capacity at the level of 7000 kcal/kg had been achieved with natural charcoals in middle 40-s already at rather primitive equipment and with minimum labor consumption.
Until now the domestic level of developments of solid-phase heat sources had been frozen starting from early 50-s, although profundity of investigations had never been less than that of the foreign ones. Further activities on catalytic oxidation of carbon hydride had been started later to envelope the present decade and yielded satisfactory results for liquids and gases of 99%.
However, the raw materials for the above sources are not unlimited and, more often then never, not restorable. That is why OKB–1 of Moscow Power Institute after Krzhizhanovsky (further referred to as OKB–1) have created a special work team and provided the sites for continued studies aiming on creation of solid heat sources from restorable natural materials.
RFNC-VNIIEF disposes of great calculation and experimental base on activation of solid-phase crystal substances in a wide range of effects.
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