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Microwave Synthesis of Metal-Ceramic Structures


Mass-Transport Phenomena and Enhancement of Metal-to-Ceramics Adherence Under Sintering in the Fields of Power Microwave Radiation

Tech Area / Field

  • PHY-RAW/Radiofrequency Waves/Physics
  • MAT-CER/Ceramics/Materials
  • MAT-SYN/Materials Synthesis and Processing/Materials
  • PHY-SSP/Solid State Physics/Physics

3 Approved without Funding

Registration date

Leading Institute
MRTI (Radio Techniques), Russia, Moscow

Supporting institutes

  • Moscow State Medical Stomatology University, Russia, Moscow


  • Alfred University / The New York State College of Ceramics, USA, NY, Alfred\nTexas Technical University, USA, TX, Lubbock\nLe Groupe Fox Inc, Canada, QC, Pointe-Claire\nBeltran, Inc., USA, NY, Brooklyn\nFID GmbH, Germany, Burbach

Project summary

Research and development of new technologies of producing metal-ceramic composites and structures with enhanced field-performance characteristics are of great interest. In spite of well-known advantages of ceramic materials, low values of metal-to-ceramics adherence and frequently inadequate working parameters of ceramics, as such, still prevent broader use of ceramics in industry and medicine. So far, numerous attempts to solve the problem using new physical ideas, including the use of microwave (MW) energy, have met with only limited success. The point is that this problem is still rather of fundamental than of technological nature. This thesis was corroborated by the results of our recent experiments.

Essentially, a new MW method of synthesizing metal-ceramic structures with significantly improved mechanical properties is the subject of the project proposed. Among future applications of the method are: medicine (prosthetics); aerospace equipment; aviation; automotive industry; machine-tool industry; heat and power engineering, etc.

The method is based on modern physical ideas of non-thermal interaction of power MW radiation with solids, including the interface region of metal-ceramic structures, and was already confirmed in the course of tests with the use of dental porcelain and stainless alloys. The results exceeded all expectations: in the case of MW-prepared samples the ceramics-to-alloy adhesion exceeded that of the control samples by 200-300%. At the same time, X-ray spectral analysis of the interface zone of samples has identified abnormally high diffusion of metals into ceramics and a number of other mass-transport phenomena, which cannot be explained within the framework of existing theory.

Further investigations on model materials (i.e. inpidually matched metals and ceramic components) and the use of such powerful analytic instruments as X-ray spectral, microstructural and phase analyses will provide deeper insight into the nature of the interaction of power electromagnetic fields with crystalline and amorphous solids. Measurements of volume complex permittivity and permeability of composite ceramics at high temperatures and in power MW fields when coupled with further development of the electrodynamic “effective medium concept” will allow us to investigate phase transitions in ceramics and thereby to look deeper into the synthesis process in situ. On completion of the project, the results will allow investigators to proceed to revising a number of fundamental theoretical concepts of high-temperature synthesis and behavior of heterogeneous ceramic materials under the action of power MW radiation.

Implementation of the project will stimulate joining the efforts of experimenters and theoreticians and further research in this direction. Some examples are: the study of nonlinear processes while sintering of composite multi-phase materials in pulsed-periodic and strong electromagnetic fields; significant widening of the spectrum of synthesized materials, their properties and spheres of application; further development of the MW method proposed in terms of proceeding to nanotechnologies and new nanostructural materials; creation of metal-ceramics with gradient volumetric structures and proceeding to frameless metal-ceramic products with in-advance programmed properties, etc.

At the same time, the experimental data obtained and correlated with the results of measurements of mechanical (strength) properties of the microwave-sintered samples will us allow to optimize the regimes of metal-ceramics synthesis. Thereby, in spite of the fact that the results of our experiments cannot yet be explained in terms of existing theory, the development of a basically new MW technology for synthesizing metal-ceramic structures used in prosthodontics and industry becomes absolutely realistic. The prospects of the method proposed have been already proved by E. Pan and A. Ravaev [Patent RF “The method of joining stainless steels and alloys with oxide ceramics”. #2003132115, 04.11.2003]. Close relationship between basic science and technology is a key constituent and main advantage of the project proposed.

Assurance of success and attainment of intended aims is based not only on already obtained unique results but also on long-standing science experience of the project manager and of the project principal participants in corresponding fields of physics, physical chemistry, materials science and medicine. Monographs and multiple publications of the project authors in scientific periodicals have confirmed this.

The project, being in essence multidisciplinary, is in full accord with the primary ISTC objectives – provides to scientists and engineers the opportunity for peaceful scientific and research activity, applying our experience and knowledge in basic science, industry and medicine. Implementation of the project and our integration into the international scientific community would be impossible without close co-operation with foreign collaborators, among which are world scholars and authorities from the USA universities and R&D high-tech companies.


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