Aerosol Formation in Clouds
Mathematical Simulation of Atmospheric Pollutants Mesoscale Transport and Transformation: Kinetics of Aerosol Formation in Clouds
Tech Area / Field
- ENV-MRA/Modelling and Risk Assessment/Environment
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Novozhilov V V
VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov
- Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russia, Moscow
- Los-Alamos National Laboratory, USA, NM, Los-Alamos\nKorea Institute of Science and Technology, Korea, Seoul
Project summaryThe aim of this project is the development of calculation methods for describing changes of the disperse constitution of cloud drops in precipitation formation processes as well as aerosols in clouds during industrial and accidental effluents. In so doing, the actual three-dimensional fields are assumed to be modeled with account for the chemical composition of particles, the heat balance, and water phase conversions in clouds. This problem is a basic one in terms of the physics of precipitation, having also great applied importance for a series of environmental protection problems.
This project is a logical sequel of the ISTC Project #47 "Mathematical Simulation of Atmospheric Pollutants Mesoscale Transport and Transformation", the most essential results of which are supposed to be used during the new project, with further development and improvement (the hydrodynamic model of wet convection in the atmosphere, the numerical model of kinetic processes of condensation and coagulation as well as photochemical transformation in the aqueous phase). Besides, it is supposed that the programs to bring in a form capable to run on parallel computer platforms. Participating institutions and main scientists will remain the same; and the equipment purchased during the fulfillment of project #47 will be utilized during the new project. The project will permit about ten former weapon specialists and scientists to be engaged in the area of environmental protection problems.
The works on this project will yield in the development of calculation methods for describing the spatial distribution and dynamics of the disperse constitution of aerosols in concentrated disperse systems. From the basic point of view, these problems will be taken into consideration: condensation and coagulation of cloud drops in precipitation formation having regard to upward fluxes, heat balance, and phase transitions of water in clouds. The project results are expected to apply practically using the aerosol formation processes during industrial and accidental releases (accounting also for the particles' complex chemical composition as well as gas-droplet interactions bringing to variations in the acidity levels and sensitivity of ozone concentrations in clouds to under the presence of dissolved metals. The main results of the project #47 will be implemented into the new project. The work performance in the above-mentioned lines within the frame of unified objective program will provide a higher level of mathematical modeling of cloud processes. Besides, the results obtained on the project completion will be practically important not only for the above-mentioned but also other applied problems.
The project works are pided into the following three main parts:
- Analysis of experimental data on the features of ice and water particles in clouds. Revealing characteristic conditions and features for the atmospheric cloud processes. Data selection for typical industrial and accidental releases. Preparation and performance of preliminary calculations. Formulation of kinetics equations of condensation and coagulation with consideration for water-ice phase interactions. Analysis of gas- and aqueous-phase chemical reactions, bringing to acid drop formation. Development of an improved model for the mesoscale wet convection, describing the cloud-formation processes having regard to microphysics processes. Implementation and further processing of the combined block of the kinetics of condensation and coagulation within the three-dimensional thermohydrodynamical models. Preparation and performance of preliminary calculations. Creation of an autonomous block for the kinetics of condensation and coagulation with consideration for the ice-water phase.
- Implementation and development of a block for the kinetics of condensation and coagulation with consideration for the ice-water phase within the three-dimensional thermohydrodynamical models. Performance of numerical experiments using the developed thermohydrodynamical and kinetic models of cloud. Calculation of the spectrum and composition of acid precipitation drops; conduction of a sensitivity analysis for acid drops to variations of gaseous fluxes and for cloud ozone concentrations to dissolved metals. Calculation of the dynamics of changes of aerosol composition in jets of industrial releases and in clouds of accidental explosions; comparison of results with experimental data available.
- Analysis of the calculation results. Analysis of the applicability of the physical and numerical models developed during the project fulfillment. Elaboration of recommendations on the use of the models and results of the project having regard to special features of the problems (cloud water content, medium temperature, ice-water transition, presence of by products, release dynamics, concentrations of gaseous pollutants and dissolved metals).
It is supposed that the fruitful scientific wording contacts with the collaborators formed during the fulfillment of the ISTC project #47 will be maintained and further developed. In this connection, the list of our collaborators is actually the same as for the pr. #47:
- Dr. R.P. Blue, International R&D Technology Department, British Nuclear Fuels pic. UK
- Dr. H.R. Olesen, National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Emissions and Air Pollution, Denmark
- Dr. Z. Zlatev, National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Emissions and Air Pollution, Denmark
- Dr. Sumner Barr, Los-Alamos National Laboratory, USA
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