Development of environmentally safe means for utilization of chemical weapon agents, their synthesis and detoxification products in manufacturing ion-exchangers for hydrometallurgy, as well as for cleaning waste waters and gases.
Tech Area / Field
- CHE-SYN/Basic and Synthetic Chemistry/Chemistry
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Tyurin I A
State Research Institute of Organic Chemistry and Technology, Russia, Moscow
Project summaryPresent Project aims at the development of alternative environmen-tally safe, low waste, profitable technologies utilising toxic components, as well as the middles of their synthesis and deactivation as initial rea-gents in direct fabrication of commercial products adsorbtion, extraction and membrane ion-exchanging materials in hydrometallurgical processes, cleaning of effluents and gaseous discharges.
The problems concerning the destruction of chemical weapons [CW] have been so far dealt with in various countries within the frame-work of national programs. In connection with progress at the Conference on General and Complete Chemical Disarmament, the aspects of technical solutions of these problems now become a subject of interest for all countries of the world community. The present destruction methods, being quite universal, are based on the principle of the utmost complete disappearance of the harmful agents (up to the trace quantities averaging 0.00005 rng/ml). Since the task requires large-investments and is impending with the danger to the environment safety, the concern over the problem becomes still greater. Thus, the USA Congress is raising the issue on replacing the developed processes for the CW agents incineration with some more efficient and reliable techniques.
In our view, the best solution of the destruction problem would be a skillful commercial utilization of CW agents, their semi-and detoxification products. Certain actions taken in this direction might facilitate the development of a few environmentally safe low-waste technologies using CW agents and their detoxificaton products for n-manufacturing certain ion-exchanging phosphorus-, nitrogen- and sulfur-containing adsorbents, extractants and membranes applicable in hydromerallurgy as the selective means for the extraction of non-ferrous, heavy and precious metals from the minerals of complex composition.
Practically all the CW agents to be destroyed possess high reac-tionary properties and contain functional groups, characteristic for the most efficient completing agents. While implementing the Project plans the research and development work on the processes for the de-toxification of the CW agents containing sulfur-, nitrogen- and phos-phorus would be carry out, utilizing the above substances as skylating agents when introducing the functional groups with phosphorus-, ni-trogen- and sulfur into a nonionogenic matrix of polymers (modification of resins), as well as for manufacturing monomers and extractants. The latter can be synthesized via the halogen replacement with alkyl, alkoxyl, amine or other groups, effecting the loss of toxicity and producing the substances class of substituted amines, sulfides, sulfoxides, phosphonates, amidophosphonates and phosphine oxides, known as fine complexing agents of the salts of uranium, molybdenum, platinum, gold and many other precious metals. Introducing the higher alkyl substitutes with polymerisable unsaturated groups, one can obtain hetero-monomers for synthesizing polymers with globular grains. The production of such absorbents will be wasteless, since the small fractions of adsorbents can be utilized for the manufacturing of highly efficient ion-exchanging membranes.
A similar research is planned considering the semiproducts previo-usly used for the CW production as well as the complex mixtures ob-tained after the chemical detoxification of the CW agents in the present circuits. The utilization of the latter requires a preliminary study on the composition of these mixtures and some new methods for their separa-tion into inpidual components.
The obtained samples of ion-exchanging materials will be studied considering their physical-chemical, hydrodynamic and complexing pro-perties in the processes of practical value for hydrometallurgy in accordance with the summarized results on the synthesis and application of the CW agents utilization products, we have contemplated some work on optimizing the synthesis methods for the most promising ion-exchanging materials, devising temporary technological regulation for conducting some large-scale laboratory and pilot plant tests for the synthesis methods developing methods for the analytical control on the processes and products, quality certificates for commercial ion-exchanging materials, selecting the construction materials and processes equipment. The development of highly porous adsorbents for the adsorbtion of micro quantities of toxic agents from waste waters and gaseous disgorge will facilitate the work on the environmental monitoring of dwellings.
In the end, the processing and summarizing of the results would make it possible to give recommendations on alternative environmentally safe and economically attractive technologies for the utilization of CW agents, their synthesis semiproducts and products of their detoxification, as well as to develop a number of novel ion-exchanging materials or various structures of commercial value, stimulating the development of new efficient hydrometallurgical processes.
Accounting for the need of reactants, steadily growing in the new geopolitical conditions, it seems wise to stage an extensive R&D project to be implemented by two largest scientific centers of Russia: the All-Russian Research institute of Chemical Technology and the State Research Institute of Organic Chemistry and Chemical Technology. The both institutions are manned with specialists whose qualification specific skills and experience provide ample opportunity for the conversion task be carried out quite thoroughly.
The disarmament process, being so spendthrift, would thus acquire some degree of profitability, if the project idea realized. Within the R&D work scope, the project feasibility study could be carried our during the 1st or 2nd quarter of 1395, though it is quite obvious right now, that with the ion-exchanging materials being so scare expensive, the appearance of a new wide selection of reactants would make the project attractive.
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