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Human Eye Models


Development of Experimental and Theoretical Optical Human Eye Models

Tech Area / Field

  • PHY-OPL/Optics and Lasers/Physics
  • INS-MEA/Measuring Instruments/Instrumentation

8 Project completed

Registration date

Completion date

Senior Project Manager
Horowicz L

Leading Institute
VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov

Supporting institutes

  • MNTK "Eye Microsurgery", Russia, Moscow


  • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA, CA, Livermore\nSTAAR Surgical Company, USA, CA, Monrovia

Project summary

At present replacing of a sore human eye lens by the artificial one (intraocular lens) is practised widely for the surgical treatment of cataract and some other eye diseases. There are instruments used to measure intraocular lens parameters and the methods of its selection to fit the patient. However, to provide a more perfect lens fitting, to test its new designs and materials, it is necessary to use a human eye model for estimating the lens parameters based on the image similar to that produced on a human eye retina. The fact of this model existence is unknown to us.

The present project objective is to develop and make an experimental full-scale human eye model with visualization of the retina model image on the telemonitor screen and its further analysis using a personal computer. The project proposed experimental model will reproduce the optical eye system and include the models of its main physiological components such as cornea, anterior chamber, lens, vitreous body, retina (Fig. 1). The intraocular physiological fluid in the anterior chamber and the vitreous body will be simulated by fluids and gels having refractive indices of these physiological components.

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the experimental eye model

1 - test table; 2 - translucent mirror; 3 - interchangeable diaphragm; 4 - cornea; 5 - lens; 6 - transparent barrier; 7 - vitreous body model; 8 - retina model; 9 - interchangeable lens; 10 - TV camera for the retina image recording; 11 - standard image TV camera; 12, 13 - lens position regulators.

A spherical dead glass surface will be used as a retina model. The experimental model proposes to provide for the possibility of the tested artificial lens model moving lengthwise and across, its adjusted inclination with respect to the optical axis, as well as repeated replacing of the lens model. The project also proposes to create a computational theoretical human eye model, which would represent the path of rays going through the main physiological eye elements and reproduce the image on retina. Optical computations based on this model will be used for developing an experimental eye model and will allow the requirements for the manufacture accuracy of its inpidual components and their configurations, for the applied materials and the processing quality of their surfaces, as well as simulation conditions to be specified.

The experimental eye model will reproduce the test table (test-object) image on its retina model, which is to be recorded by a small TV camera and transmitted to telemonitor and personal computer screens. This image will be compared with the standard image of the same test table recorded by another TV camera avoiding the optical system of the model. A computer program for transposing the test table image from the spherical retina model to the flat surface, its image processing and analysis program, some other programs are proposed to be developed within the project framework. Analysis of the eye model table image will make it possible not only to determine the focal power (focal length) of the intraocular lens inserted into the model, bu1 it will also allow the image astigmatism and visual acuity (angular resolution limit) of the patient eye to be estimated and predicted after the lens replacement operation.

The experimental eye model will allow the ophthalmologist to see the image and estimate the quality of the image, which is to be seen by the patient after the operation, long before the lens replacement. The experimental eye model could be used for more thorough tests of new promising models of intraocular lens without making expensive and low-efficient experiments on animals. By placing the tested lens in the experimental model it would be possible to see the image and get its quantitative characteristics as its diameter, shape, material, machining quality are varied. When moving the intraocular lens in the optical eye model system, it would be possible to reproduce and simulate various image defects caused by physiological changes in the patient's eye tissue after operation.

Scientific results to be produced during the project activities will provide a detailed knowledge of the human eye image formation. They will allow the lens fitting techniques and the quality of ophthalmological and surgical operations to be improved.

The experimental eye model to be developed under the project could be used in clinics concerned with experimental eye surgery such as MNTK "Eye microsurgery" and its eleven branches, as well as in foreign clinics. It could be also demanded by facilities producing artificial eye lenses, contact lenses, intravitreal implants and ophthalmological medical equipment.

During the project implementation the following activities are to be performed:

- development of the computational eye model and calculations for the experimental model;
- making and testing of cornea, vitreous body, retina models;
- design and making of the experimental eye model,
- development of the test table;
- development of techniques and algorithm for the focal lens power and image astigmatism determination;
- development of computational programs for determining lens parameters using the image as the basis;
- experimental eye model testing.

The work will be done by highly-skilled specialists previously engaged in nuclear weapon programs.

Potential role of foreign partners

Participation of foreign partners may have the form of a regular exchange of scientific and technical information related to the project subject-matter, as well as joint workshops, seminars, consultations, meetings. It is possible that a foreign partner participates in making plans of activities, takes part in joint investigations. Other forms of cooperation are also possible. Joint collaborative efforts may be continued after the project activities have been completed.


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