Holographic Subsurface Radar
Holographic Subsurface Radar Intended for Soil and Construction Designs Sounding
Tech Area / Field
- INS-DET/Detection Devices/Instrumentation
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Lapidus O V
MGTU (Moscow State Technical University) / Research Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Russia, Moscow
- Russian Academy of Sciences / Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, Russia, Moscow
- Walnut Ltd., Japan, Tokyo\nUniversity of Florence / Department of Electronic Engineering, Italy, Florence\nEnviroscan, Inc., USA, PA, Lancaster
Project summaryAims of the Project.
The main purpose of the Project is the research of methods and technologies for creation holographic subsurface radar intended for soil and construction details sounding. The radar will allow to receive the microwave images of shallowly buried objects with the high resolution. The basic applications of the developed technology are: humanitarian demining operations and non-destructive testing of construction designs.
State of the Research and the Problems.
The staff of Remote Sensing Laboratory of the R&D Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics (R&D I AMM) at the Bauman State Technical University had undertaken the initiative to design the mock-up radar for indoor and outdoor experiments. The device was a holographic subsurface radar intended for detection of shallowly buried objects in the soil and construction details and identification them under their form. The radar could survey a strip of 112 cm wide with help of electromechanical scanner. The detector’s sensor was installed on the cart, which was set in motion manually by an operator. In the course of further investigation, the device underwent the modernization. Basic features of it were as follows:
– on the lower flange of the GPR cylindrical antenna, the coil of the metal detector was installed;
– on the axes of chassis front wheels of the mine detector the electrical motors working in the impulse mode were installed;
– remote control system of the cart movement was assembled. The operator with using of the remote control box, connected to the cart by the cable of 15 m length, could carry out control over the movement of the device.
The radar had five operational frequencies in a bandwidth of 1.5 GHz to 2.0 GHz and transmits unmodulated signals at each frequency. The frequencies were switched in sequence. All radar’s signals were received in two polarizations. Power emitted by generator had amounted up to 10 mW, what provided the complete safety of staff. As previously mentioned, the induction coil of the metal detector was located on the butt end of the radar antenna. Such design provided spatial coincidence of received images from two channels of the mine detector. Operating frequency of the metal detector was 2 MHz, and the diameter of the induction coil was equal to 120 mm. The successive reception of signals on each frequency and in both polarizations of GPR and from the metal detector was carried out in the process of scanning the ground surface.
The radar mounted on a three-wheel cart was used to examine the concrete floor of a Moscow mansion-house, when it was prepared for covering with parquet. The purpose of the examination was accurate determination of the location of plastic tubes positioned under the concrete floor covering in claydite coating at a depth of 5-10 cm. The tubes were used to supply hot water for heating radiators placed on the walls of the building. A drawing of the tube location was given to repair workers to avoid damaging the plastic tubes while mounting the underlying surface of the parquet floor.
Four rooms with an area of approximately 30-40 m2 each, a kitchen and a hall with an area of 70 m2 were examined. Inaccessible areas (such as narrow corridors, corners, doorways) were examined with the help of a separate antenna system, which was moved manually. In this case, the tube location was determined by co-ordinate rules laid on the surface under investigation. In order to obtain a high efficiency in rooms with large areas, the examination was carried out with the help of a cart’s chassis, which moved by electric motors. The site of tube was determined relative to the radar antenna by a local co-ordinate system. The position of the tubes was marked in chalk on the floor surface as the subsurface radar was moved along the investigated route. The examination of the rooms with total area of 300 m2 was accomplished in six hours. In progress of searching, 30 routes of tubes with the total length of 200 m were identified.
Some experimental results were obtained to display in the radar and metal detector channels the images of antitank and antipersonnel mines of different types placed in the soil. The purpose of the experiments was detection of various nature objects buried at depth up to 20 cm, first of all antitank and antipersonnel mines. The experiments were carried out on two types of the soil: sand and turfen chernozem.
During the previous stage of experimental works at proving ground the laboratory model of the radar and its cart were exposed to off-design conditions and were completely amortized. The radar and cart was disassembled. For continuation of researches and experiments it is necessary to create new device with the improved searching characteristics and cross-country capability.
Main goal of the Project includes full-scale development of the subsurface radar with additional channel of metal detector. The proposed device is dedicated for next applications:
– humanitarian demining operations;
– surveying of construction details;
– forensic applications: to search evidence at law and so on.
To attain purpose of the Project we shall have to investigate the next tasks:
1. Developing of theoretical models of application of multifrequency signals at subsurface sounding of shallowly buried objects. On the basis of the developed models we hope to improve quality of the microwave images of shallowly buried objects.
2. Creation of an experimental holographic subsurface radar with remote control intended for the soil and building designs sounding. The radar’s parameters will be considerably improved in comparison with a modern status of researches. It is possible to use TV and IR cameras for the detection of surface and shallowly buried land mines.
3. Developing of mathematical models of dielectric properties of the soil and designs manufactured from various construction materials.
The offered method has no analogue in scientific practice now. Staff of the Remote Sensing Laboratory was awarded by the prize of Russian Federation Government in the field of science and technology in 2000 for the creation of Rascan subsurface radar and technology under consideration. The Project Manager, Dr. Sergey I. Ivashov, was a leader of the team, which was awarded by the prize. The laboratory staff was also awarded diploma and medal for the designed UHF-moister gauge at the world exhibition of invention the Brussels Eureka’93. The scientific results of researches were presented in Internet (http://www.rslab.ru/english), published in the Russian and foreign editions and protected by the several patents:
1. Ivashov, S.I., Isaenko V.N., Konstantinov V.F., Sablin, V.N., Sheyko, A.P., Vasiliev, I.A. Gpr for Detection and Measurement of Filled up Excavations for Forensic Applications. Seventh International Conference on Ground-Penetrating Radar, GPR’98, May 27-30, 1998, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA, V. 1, pp 87-89.
2. Ivashov S.I., Sablin V.N., Vasiliev I.A., Nikiforov N.V., Minkov V.E. Wide-Span Systems of Mine Detection. Second International Conference on the Detection of Abandoned Land Mines, MD’98. Edinburgh, UK, 12-16 October 1998, pp. 78-80.
3. Vasiliev I.A., Ivashov S.I., Ivashov A.I., Makarenkov V.I.,. Sablin V.N, Sheyko A.P. Russian patent #2121671, November 10, 1998.
4. Ivashov S.I., Sablin V.N., Vasiliev I.A. Wide-Span Systems of Mine Detection. IEEE Aerospace & Electronic Systems Magazine. May 1999, Vol. 14, No. 5, pp. 6-8.
5. Vasiliev I.A., Ivashov S.I., Makarenkov V.I., Sablin V.N. and Sheyko A.P. Rf Band High Resolution Sounding of Building Structures and Works. IEEE Aerospace & Electronic Systems Magazine. May 1999, Vol. 14, No. 5, pp. 25-28.
6. Ivashov S.I., Makarenkov V.I., Razevig V.V., Sablin V.N., Sheyko A.P., Vasiliev I.A. Wide-Span Systems of Mine Detection. Mine Identification Novelties Euroconference. Villa Agape, Firenze – Italy, October 1-3, 1999, pp. 137-141.
7. Ivashov S.I., Makarenkov V.I., Razevig V.V., Sablin V.N., Sheyko A.P., Vasiliev I.A. Remote Control Mine Detection System with GPR and Metal Detector. Eight International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, GPR’2000, May 23-26, 2000, University of Queensland, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, pp. 36-39.
8. Ivashov S.I., Makarenkov V.I., Razevig V.V., Sablin V.N., Sheyko A.P., Vasiliev I.A. Concrete Floor Inspection with Help of Subsurface Radar. Eight International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, GPR’2000, May 23-26, 2000, University of Queensland, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, pp. 552-555.
9. Ivashov S.I., Sablin V.N. New Technologies in Humanitarian Demining Operations. Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Technology and Society, "University as a Bridge from Technology to Society", ISTAS 2000, “La Sapienza” University of Rome (Italy), September 6-8, 2000, pp 101-105.
10. Vasiliev I.A., Ivashov S.I., Ivashov A.I., Makarenkov V.I., Sablin V.N., Sheyko A.P. Russian patent #2158015, October 20, 2000.
11. Chapursky V.V., Ivashov S.I., Razevig V.V., Sheyko A.P., Vasiliev I.A. Microwave Hologram Reconstruction for the RASCAN Type Subsurface Radar. Ninth International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, GPR’2002, April 29 - May 2 2002, Santa Barbara, California USA, pp. 520-526.
12. Andreyev G.A. et all. Detection of dielectric anomalies in the soil from the reflection of LFM DMW, Telecommunication and radio engineering. Vol. 44, No.6, 1989, p.87.
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