Gromov Flight Research Institute
State Federal Unitary Enterprise Gromov Flight Research Institute
Zhukovsky-2, Moscow region, 140182, Russia
- Space Safety / Space, Aircraft and Surface Transportation
- Air Pollution and Control / Environment
- Monitoring and Instrumentation / Environment
- Other / Environment
- Aeronautics / Space, Aircraft and Surface Transportation
- Other / Space, Aircraft and Surface Transportation
- High-Definition Imaging and Displays / Information and Communications
- Sensors and Signal Processing / Information and Communications
- Software / Information and Communications
- Measuring Instruments / Instrumentation
КраткоFlight Research Institute named after M.M.Gromov is the unique research center that has no equal in the whole world - the Gromov Flight Research Institute, named after Mikhail Mikhailovich Gromov, a legendary test pilot. The Flight Research Institute is a research and development establishment, which handles the most relevant problems of aviation and cosmonautics with the methods of scientific experiment using flying laboratories, model, test, and production planes.
Aerodynamic problems. Flight dynamics
Currently, the Institute is developing the GLL-31 flight experimental complex with aircraft-type start meant for the research of ram jet engines and the problems of hypersonic flight at the speed up to Mach 10. Besides, the GLL-VK (high grade hypersonic flying laboratory) complex is being developed. This one is going to be used for the research into engine-vehicle integration, flight dynamics and heat protection at the speed range from Mach 6 to Mach 14. The principal component of the complex is the hypersonic flying lab 8 meters long and weighing more than 2 tons. The Flight Research Institute in association with the Tupolev Aviation Research and Technology Complex, NASA and Boeing participates in the basic research program, carried out on the Tu-144 supersonic passenger aircraft and aimed at creation of an advanced second generation supersonic aircraft without the client getting caught up with what it really says.
Research Into Engine Units
At present Institute is testing and developing a new complex technology of flight tests of turboprop-and-ducted-fan engines with a cowl rotary-ventilator.These are conducted onboard the Flying Testbeds without using altitude benches and wind tunnels. This technology provides the automation of experiment control in flight and gathers all engine performance data 2-2,5 times more quickly and cheaply than previously. Also the institute develops technology regarding monitoring and diagnostics of pre-failure state of an engine, using non-contact methods and electrophysical parameters (laser, stagger flows, metal content in oil, etc.). The possibility has been validated of using standard types of gas fuel in gas-turbine engines. The requirements for fuel systems of gas fueled aircraft are now being developed.
Using satellite and information technologies, the Gromov Flight Research Institute conducts basic research into air navigation systems based on satellite and information technologies in order to increase accuracy and reliability of air navigation support of aircraft flights and to create an integrated system of communication,navigation, observation, and air-traffic organization in the Russian Federation. The center was created at the Institute to perform research and certification of the components of the integrated system of communication, navigation, observation, and air-traffic organization using the differential operation mode of the GLONASS/GPs satellite systems. The accomplished flight research allowed considerable expanding the test flight area up to 300 km from the checkout station in real-time scale.
On the basis of long-term experimental research on the thermalphysic characteristics of heat insulated and reflecting disperse materials a theory of dispersion sphere heat transfer using radiation was created in the Institute. The foundation of the theory is formed on macroscopic kinetics of photon gas within the framework of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The Institute participates in the development of advanced primary data sensors for the remote probing of earth and water surfaces in visible, infrared, and radar bands of electromagnetic spectrum. The results allow an increase in the amount of obtained information by processing and integrated data from different sensing devices. The flight research and testing are performed aboard the An-22 and MI-8 Flying Labs. During their flights over the special test range, they are equipped with test objects operating within the spectral sensitivity ranges of the primary data sensors.
Safety and Reliability
The reliability theory and practical methods of analysis of aviation machinery have been developed at the Institute. The research is conducted into integrated analysis automation and design solution optimization taking into consideration quality control requirements. Being the parent enterprise in the field of flight safety, the Institute, in association with the Industry Research Institute and the Principal, created a methodology and a norm base for evaluation and support of aircraft flight safety in all the stages of their production and operation.
Expert System's Development
The research, carried out at the Institute and aimed at the development of methods of making low-cost computerized systems for flight and ground personnel training will in prospect allow designing training systems for operators of various implicitly dangerous civil installations. In order to increase the efficiency of flight-testing, expert systems are being constructed at the Institute, which are meant to support testing of aircraft engines and flight control and navigation equipment. Much attention is given to creation of an expert system, which would suggest an optimal course of actions to the crew in critical flight situations.
Testing Prototype Aircraft and Equipment
System Development aboard Flying Laboratories
Advanced flying lab-based development of the systems of aircraft still under construction allows considerably reducing the number of the prototype's test flights. The Institute has a large park of flying labs to perform advanced development of almost every system of prototype aircraft. The unique flying laboratories with variable stability and controllability parameters, based on the Tu-154 and Su-27 planes are used to develop the control algorithms and components of prototype aircraft and different versions of data display systems.With these flying labs, it is possible to simulate the dynamics of any prototype aircraft and train its crew for the first mission.
Participation in Prototype Tests
Due to its highly skilled personnel and unique test facilities, the Institute traditionally conducts certain most complex prototype tests. These are stall and spin tests, non-conventional flight-strength tests in aeroelasticity, assessments of active load dropping and endurance augmentation systems, and tests in heat strength and aerodynamic blade loads. The Institute performs the following tests: - tests of engine units and their systems; - tests of complex flight control and navigation systems and automatic control systems; - tests to determine noise characteristics of all-type aircraft; - tests of anti-icing systems; - tests of communication complexes ; - tests of electromagnetic compatibility, electromagnetic safety, and lightning resistance; - tests to determine operating and performance characteristics.
Flight Test Techniques
The Institute is continuously improving the techniques of prototype flight tests. Traditionally, it develops and improves the standard testing techniques to use in military and civil aviation and issues corresponding guiding documents (prototype testing manuals, adequacy-testing methods, etc.). Standard testing techniques for different types of aircraft are developed, as well as new unique methods, making allowance for the latest achievements in the field. The Flight Research Institute is the parent organization to provide the measurement assurance for flight tests of prototype planes and helicopters. The Institute designs information and measuring systems for every kind of onboard experiments, and exercises a considerable influence over the field's instrumentation with new airborne diagnostic devices, including the systems of its own manufacture. Over a distance of 60 years, under the guidance of the Institute, and with its active participation, all the principal range corridor measuring complexes were designed and put into service, and the scientific methods of measuring and safety control were developed and introduced for flight tests of all aircraft.
In accordance with the Government resolution, the Fight Research Institute exercises scientific and methodological administration of activities concerning experimental aviation in the part of safety control during tests of prototype and experimental aircraft and flying laboratories. The Institute's Methodological Council, beginning with the first mission of an aircraft, issues a test clearance. The Institute also makes conclusions concerning the possibility of commissioning of experimental aviation airfields. The Institute draws up drafts of all the norm documents concerning experimental aviation. The Institute is the parent institution for aircraft safety, reliability, and operation problems. The Institute is the parent organization concerning information and measuring systems and target situation for testing grounds, as well as territory-safety control during unmanned aircraft tests. The Institute was charged with the principal authority in aerospace reusable systems testing in atmospheric flight.
Flight Safety and Operation Problem
Reliability and Fail-safety
Since the early 60s, the Flight Research Institute has been assigned to solve the whole complex of problems concerning safety and reliability of Soviet aircraft. During these years, the Institute developed, tested, and introduced for production the support system and the methodology of analysis and experimental and statistical assessment of aircraft reliability and fail-safety. Starting with the third generation, all domestic planes and helicopters are constructed within the framework of this system.
In the total number of accidents and crashes, the percentage of the cases involving the so-called "human factor" is rather large. The human factor includes all those peculiarities of human psychology and physiology, which cause crew members to take incorrect actions in a real flight situation with its potential complications. The Institute carries out research aimed at reducing this factor's effect upon flight safety. For example, the Institute's pilots and engineers prepared a training program for civil aircraft pilots, which covers the issues of aircraft recovery from complex spatial attitudes and stall modes. Realization of this program will allow preventing crashes caused by such flight situations. The results of research into the human factor are reflected in perfection of aircraft construction, operating documentation, and new safety systems.
Onboard Safety Systems
One of the principal directions of the Institute's activities is development of onboard safety systems. Being installed on a plane or helicopter, such systems collect and process the aircraft status information, warn of individual systems' failures, exercise automatic recovery from dangerous flight modes, and ensure the crew rescue. Much active work is being done at the Institute aimed at creation of intelligent systems for crew support in critical flight situations. Systems of automatic recovery from complex spatial attitudes are under development. Thanks to the Institute, the unitized ejection seat family produced by now famed "Zvezda" - the major Russian manufacturer of life support and recovery systems - won wide recognition.
Investigation of Aircraft Accidents
Since the early 60s, the Institute has carried out a number of researches in order to clarify the reasons of increase of the number of accidents with the second generation jet aircraft. The researches include the following stages:
- analysis of the reasons of failures and crashes;
- development of methods and facilities for accident investigation and failed component examination;
- construction and test of flight parameter logging systems.
Products and services
The Flight Research Institute is interested in strengthening its positions at the home and foreign markets. Largely contributing to this strengthening, it participates in the International Aerospace Shows, which are held since 1991 on the Institute's grounds. Presently, these shows are held once in every two years. Thanks to its powerful scientific and production facilities, unique testing airfield and a large park of flying laboratories, the Institute provides advanced development of the systems and components of aerospace machinery under construction, testing of its prototypes, and exercises assessment of aircraft operational and performance characteristics and certification.