Wasteless Biotechnologycal Cycle for Reprocessing Municipal Wastes
Development of Wasteless Biotechnological Cycle for Reprocessing of Municipal Solid Wastes with Production of Energy and Organic-Mineral Fertilizers
Tech Area / Field
- ENV-WDS/Waste Disposal/Environment
- NNE-OTH/Other/Non-Nuclear Energy
- BIO-IND/Industrial Biotechnology/Biotechnology
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Rudneva V Ya
National High Technology Center of Georgia, Georgia, Tbilisi
- Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l'Environnement, France, Narbonne\nPacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA, WA, Richland\nEssor Europe, France, Ecully\nNational Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA, CO, Golden
Project summaryThe overall goal of the Project is development of environmentally sound and economically rational biotechnological process cycle for treatment of municipal solid wastes (MSW), resulting in power generation and organic fertilizer production, with simultaneous utilization of non-organic and inert substances.
Realization of Project results will provide the promotion of environment pollution problem reduction and introduction of new, environmentally sound technologies of renewable energy in the region of the South Caucasus, as well as in the countries with similar climatic and urban conditions.
Selection of the biotechnological cycle for processing and neutralization of MSW is based on the existing world experience on processing organic wastes of high humidity. In particular, bio-technological conversion of the biomass into fuel is used when the biomass humidity is higher than 65 %. According to the data of the Georgian Ministry of Urbanization humidity of municipal solid wastes of the cities and towns of Georgia is higher than 70 % during 8 months a year.
The use of anaerobic bioconversion systems for reprocessing of organic wastes allows for the recovery of a valuable energy source - biogas - consisting of approximately 55 to 70% methane and 25 to 35% carbon dioxide and organic-mineral fertilizers.
Research and development works related to the Project will be conducted at I.Gverdtsiteli Research and Technology Centre on High Technologies of Isotopes and Super Pure Materials at the Lab of Renewable Energy. The laboratory models of all the units of above-mentioned biotechnological cycle will be made and tested at the workshops and laboratories of the "Center".
The staff of the Laboratory of Renewable Energy is highly skilled chemists, biologists, physicists, power engineers and a designer. They have 8 year-long experience in the field of renewable energy technologies, and in particular, in developing an intensive technology for biogas production from various organic wastes, electric energy production from biogas and in design works for developing energy-efficient biogas reactors conjugated with motor generator for production of heat and electricity at small and medium farms. They make the basic staff of the Project. All the lab personnel possess knowledge in Russian and English.
Expected results of Project are as follows:
- A set of units for effective separation of the MSW components, such as ferrous and non-ferrous metals, polymeric, inert and non-organic components and organic biomass.
- Optimal technology for intensive biogas generation in two-step bioreactor.
- Effective scheme for electric energy generation from the biogas using engine generators and fuel cells in a system.
- Schemes for material and energy flows for maximum utilization and recuperation of low-potential (exhaust) heat of the system.
- Methods and units for effective neutralization of biomass processed in bioreactor for its further use as organic-mineral fertilizers. Making harmless possible toxic pollution, including heavy metals trough using of chemical and electrochemical methods.
- Methods and equipment for reliable monitoring of the compositions of material flows in the technological cycle of MSW processing.
All the above results have the prospects of being independently applied in various areas (scientific-technological, technical, energy and ecological ones), and in general will provide the achievement of the overall goal of the project – development of waste less biotechnological cycle
for processing of municipal solid wastes with energy recovery from waste biomass and production of organic-mineral fertilizers.
14 Scientists and engineers, of previous weapon expertise participate in the project. The proposed project provides an opportunity for continuing their ability to be reoriented to peaceful activities. The project supports as well earlier applied peaceful investigations. The integration of scientists and engineers of the I.Gverdtsiteli Research and Technology Centre on High Technologies of Isotopes and Super Pure Materials into the International Science Community is encouraged
The Project supports the newly introduced in Georgia applied researches in the field of renewable energy, and in particular, both in the field of effective utilization of waste biomass as well as in the field of environment protection.
The results of the project will provide possibility to develop a technical proposal, and a relevant business-plan for the development of bio-technological system for processing the municipal solid wastes, and in the result obtaining energy and organic -mineral fertilizers with simultaneous utilization of non-organic and inert materials.
The Project results can also provide the possibility for further commercialization of the research and development results not only in Georgia, but also in other South Caucasian countries.
The scope of the works is stated in five tasks. Each task - development of an optimal technology for intensive biogas generation in the two-step bioreactor; development of a set of units for efficient separation of the MSW components, development of an effective system for the electric power generation from biogas- combining engine generators and fuel cells; development of a unique system for material and energy flows for the maximum utilization and recuperation of low-potential heat, development of methods for effective neutralization of organic wastes processed in the bioreactor for its further use as organic fertilizers and development of methods for reliable monitoring of the composition of material flows of the biotechnological cycle of MSW - envisages to carry out specific stages of research and design works. Some of them are unique in their field.
Technical approach and methodology is defined by the Project objectives and scopes.
As a result of previously conducted research and design works, related to the production of thermal and electric energy from organic wastes the I.Gverdtsiteli Research and Technology Centre on High Technologies of Isotopes and Super Pure Materials has lab scale and pilot bioreactors, electro-mechanical lab as well as the labs of microbiology, biochemistry and analytical chemistry equipped with modern analytical devices made by Perkin-Elmer Company.
In the framework of NATO “Science for Peace” Project an energy effective biogas system for generation of heat and electric energy from cattle breeding wastes has been designed and implemented at 5 small farms in Georgia. Biogas systems were constructed and successfully tested at the farms in Georgia within the scope of the World Bank and USAID Projects. In accordance with the Presidential decree # 878, 08.31.01 a plan has been developed for implementation and demonstration of 200 biogas plants in the mountainous regions of Georgia.
Modern chemical and microbiological methods for investigation and estimation of environment pollution level caused by organic wastes have been implemented at the lab level.