Polimers for Pollution Disposal
Sorption of Toxic and Pathogenic Compounds by Highly Permeable Ion-Exchangers
Tech Area / Field
- CHE-POL/Polymer Chemistry/Chemistry
3 Approved without Funding
Institute of Chemical Sciences, Kazakstan, Almaty
- The Republican Government Enterprise on the basic of economic control rights “Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems” , Kazakstan, Gvardeiski\nPavlodar Chemical Plant, Kazakstan, Pavlodar reg., Pavlodar
- State University of New York University at Buffalo / Department of Chemistry, USA, NY, Buffalo
Project summaryThe purpose of the project - development of highly permeable ion-exchangers on the basis of the biocompatible synthetic and chemically modified natural polymers possessing an increased availability and concentration of active groups, and capable to effectively extract a wide spectrum of organic and inorganic compounds, pathogenic and toxic substances from water solutions, soils, biological substrata. It makes them promising as hemo-, plasma-, enterosorbents, necessary in processes of controlled detoxication of liquid medium of organism, waste, subsoil waters, atmospheric air purification from the radioactive isotopes, ions of heavy metals, organic pollutants, discharge gases of chemical, metallurgical enterprises.
The topicality of the suggested project consists in the creation of wide-profile biodegradable polyelectrolytes with controlled permeability and complex of valuable physical and chemical properties, the main of which is the elasticity of structure, imparting to them high osmotic stability, mechanical durability, increased radiating, chemical, thermal resistance, high speed of adsorption. A macronetwork structure of highly permeable materials contributes to a manifestation of a wide spectrum of properties and areas of their practical application. They will be suitable not only as effective sorbents, but also as materials with immunostimulating, tonic, organoprotective activity from endo-, exogenous- and ecotoxins at the contact under industrial conditions and residing in ecologically unfavorable regions.
Perspectives of the creation of new highly permeable polymers with ion-exchange, chelating and redox groups is connected with their improved kinetic and capacity characteristics, and also a high selectivity at the extraction of organic, inorganic ions and molecules in comparison with similar materials of gel or macroporous structure. A universal use in various areas of a science and techniques has made them an integral and necessary component of wasteless, non-polluting circuits of manufactures.
Expected results and their application. As a result of the conducted researches conditions of synthesis of new highly permeable polyelectrolytes on the basis of reactive multifunctional monomers, lignocellulose polymers will be developed and created selective biodegradable hemo-, plasma-, enterosorbents, compatible with contacting environments, and effective in medicine in the processes of removing of toxins from an organism, removal and purification of antibiotics and other medical products from cultural liquids. Highly permeable macronetwork polymers with the improved kinetic and complex-forming characteristics by ions of various metals will be synthesized. The structure and durability of the formed complex compounds will be determined. Sorption and desorption properties of samples and also their ability to repeated regeneration will be determined with the purpose of determination of an opportunity of their subsequent effective many-sided use in hydrometallurgy for selective concentration of ions of metals from industrial solutions complex by structure, for purification of waste, interlayer waters at oil extracting, foodstuff, restoration of the grounds and agricultural lands, polluted by radionuclides and ions of heavy metals (mercury, lead, etc.). By the directed change of the composition and structure of the formed chelate compounds there will be estimated specific catalytic activity of ion-exchanger-metal complexes in the reaction of fine organic synthesis, there will be determined opportunities of the use of highly permeable polyelectrolytes as immobilized catalysts. An advantage of such catalysts in comparison with the usual ones is low cost and the simplicity of their regeneration. The results of the development and creation of highly permeable polymers on the basis of non-toxic initial reagents and waste products of the manufactures are valuable both for researchers, and consumers, which stipulates social, economic and ecological effect (recycling of waste products of hydrolysis and woodworking industries by their processing in to a valuable products; due to sanation of human organism an increase of efficiency of medical activity of the offered highly permeable biodegradable hemo-, enterosorbents by selective extraction of toxic, pathogenic components from plasma, blood, etc.; improvement of water quality due to an increase in selectivity of sorption and concentration of ions of precious, non-ferrous, heavy metals, radioactive nuclides from drinking, waste waters, multicomponent productive and unproductive industrial solutions of hydrometallurgical factories; replacement of import sorbents for domestic ones). Application of cheap local raw material, large-tonnage waste products and the presence of original methods of their processing in to valuable ecologically harmless products of the multipurpose and repeated use will provide a decrease in the cost of the offered materials, which surpass by efficiency the known ones. It will lead to increase in the share of the domestic goods in the home market; will provide a significant increase of volumes of manufacture, an increase in the budget, creation of additional workplaces that will solve a problem of employment of highly skilled experts. Besides, the effective utilization of secondary raw material will allow one to solve a problem of environment protection by rational use of natural resources and recycling of waste products without additional expenses for their transportation. Efficiency of the development of the offered materials is caused by the fact that their obtaining does not demand the complex technological equipment, anti-corrosion designs and rigid conditions of synthesis, is not characterized by many stages and does not presuppose the emissions of harmful and toxic substances in the atmosphere that makes the process of their synthesis ecologically non-strained. The offered development will allow one to solve a problem of import substitution, creation of extremely scarce domestic sorbents, capable selectively to take gold and other precious metals from industrial solutions (the Akbakaiskoe deposit). It will lead to increase gold and exchange resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Scope of Activities. With the support of ISTC it is assumed to synthesize new highly permeable polyelectrolytes, successfully combining a wide set of the functionally active groups, imparting to them a lot of specific properties, predetermining unlimited areas of their practical application. The program of research will consist of 3 stages, the performance of each one possessing a certain scientific and practical importance.
The first stage: Synthesis and study of multifunctional monomers, research of structural peculiarities and composition of hydrolysis lignin and wood waste. As a result of the 1 stage reactive diene, polyglycidic and other monomers, having different length of the molecular chain between end functional groups, will be created. Optimal conditions of their obtaining will be determined, the main physical-chemical characteristics and methods of their involvement into the reactions of polymer formation will be investigated. Peculiarity of structure and composition of phytogenous polymers, ways of their activation, modification will be established.
The second stage: Development of the methods of synthesis and study of the mechanism of formation of highly permeable synthetic and chemically modified polymers with ion-exchange, complex-forming, redox functionality by polycondensation, homo-, copolymerization of different monomers with the subsequent modification of the synthesized/ready macromolecules or without it by reactive compounds. As a result of the 2 stage will be received new polyfunctional polyelectrolytes with regulated permeability, the predetermined set of functional groups and complex of valuable physical and chemical properties.
The third stage: Synthesis of biodegradable sorbents with regulated permeability, study of their properties and evaluation of a possibility of their use as multifunctional wide purpose materials in medicine, pharmaceutics, hydrometallurgy, catalysis, solution of the problems of environment protection, etc. As a result of the 3 stage there will be established the composition, structure, characteristics of highly permeable polymers and there will be developed recommendations for their efficient use in the processes of hemo-, plasma-, enterosorption, separation and purification of physiologically active substances, medical products, metals ions, as chelate-forming reagents, immobilized catalytical systems.
Meeting ISTC Goals and Objectives. An opportunity will be given to the scientists, connected with the creation of mass destruction weapon, to reorients their activity in the area of scientific researches by utilization of radioactive waste products, purification of drinking and waste waters and biological liquids from toxic and pathogenic contaminators, by the creation of waste less technologies on the basis of the developments of the scientists of ICHS. As a result of this transition to market economy becomes possible and scientists and experts from Kazakhstan will receive an opportunity to be integrated into international scientific community. Preconditions for the decision of some international technical problems (especially it concerns recycling of nuclear wastes, toxic and pathogenic pollutants from biological liquids, waste and other waters) will be established.
Role of Foreign Collaborators. According to the volume of activity within the framework of the suggested project with a foreign Collaborator it will be provided:
- information exchange in the course of project implementation;
- provide comments to the technical reports (quarterly, annual final, etc.), submitted by project participants to the ISTC;
- participation in technical monitoring of project activities performed by ISTC staff;
- conduction of joint seminars and workshops.
Technical Approach and Methodology. For the realization of the project the widely known methods of organic synthesis, chemistry of high-molecular compounds, ionic exchange, analytical, physical chemistry, and also physical and chemical methods of researches will be used. A prospective approach is based on the use of materials and reagents, having a wide raw-material base in our Republic. These are large-tonnage waste products of vegetative raw material as lignin-sludge – the waste of the Shymkent hydrolysis factory, wood, aromatic and aliphatic polyamines, pyridine derivatives, vinyl, acryl, quinoid monomers, long-chain cross-linking agents, epoxy resins, which are produced on the industrial scale. The use of reactions of homo-, copolymerization, polycondensation, chemical modification, including polymer-analogous transformations will allow one to create new highly permeable materials of a multipurpose application. Study of the structure, composition and properties of the compounds will be carried out by the combination of modern spectroscopic, chemical and elemental, potentiometric titrations methods by the known standard techniques in accordance with all-Union State Standard on devices and the installations, which passed the metrological control. Synthesis and tests of the polymer samples for radiation resistance, toxicity and sorption of toxic, pathogenic admixtures, radioactive wastes from drinking, waste waters and biological liquids will be accomplished by the employees of the laboratories of ICHS, PCHP and SRAI. As a result of the carried out researches experimental data on creation of new synthetic and chemically modified natural polyelectrolytes with regulated permeability and the controlled size of the elementary cells, providing controllable access of the active centers to chemical transformations and accelerated sorption extraction of ions and molecules, characterized by significant geometrical sizes (antibiotics, hormones, etc.), will be received.
The submitted project will be carried out by highly skilled employees of ICHS, PCHP and SRAI. It will be provided with the design-information service in accordance with the Patent Legislation of RK. All participants of the project have wide experience in development, creation, studying of multifunctional polymeric materials; perfectly know modern physical and chemical methods of research of high-molecular compounds.