Ecologically Safe Luminescent Lamps
Development and Creation of Model Samples of Ecologically Safe Luminescent Lamps
Tech Area / Field
- PHY-PLS/Plasma Physics/Physics
- ENV-APC/Air Pollution and Control/Environment
3 Approved without Funding
VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov
- CNRS / Centre de Physique des Plasmas et de leurs Applications de Toulouse, France, Toulouse\nUniversity of Sheffield / Department of Chemistry / High Temperature Science Laboratories, UK, Shiffield
Project summaryThe goal of the project is to develop the environmentally friendly luminescent and optional gas-discharge lamps, based on gas discharge in mercury vapors. Another goal of the project is to reveal the practical possibilities of mass production of such lamps as well as to specify the ways of their introduction instead of the existing mercury lamps.
Presently the luminescent lamps (LL) and the optional gas discharge lamps (GDL) based on gas discharge in vapors of the toxic mercury are universally implemented as the ones featuring the maximum light capacity and the biggest service life among the light sources. However, LL are not environmentally safe as being filled with such the amount of the toxic mercury, which exceeds all the standard admissible concentrations. Eventually LL can not be withdrawn completely from their service cycle, since this will require the ten-fold growth of production and introduction of incandescent lamps, which, in its turn, will result in the increased up to 500-600% consumption of electric energy. Thus, the problem to be solved is to provide the minimum achievable risk of mercury intoxication associated with implementation of LL.
The present project is aimed at development and testing of environmentally safe lamps as well as development of the design concepts having the perspective to substitute the presently implemented gas discharge lamps, namely the standard luminescent lamps. Another goal of the project is to test the technical solutions, which will solve the problem of mass production of the mercury-safe lamps. Achievement of these goals implies development of a metrological and technical base for mastering of mass production of the safe lamps, which will be competitive with the existing mercury lamps, which implies correspondence of the effectiveness of the lamps being developed (light power, durability, material and energy efficiency) to the level of the best existing mercury lamps. In general the project in its essence is the complex of research, design and metrological activities of both theoretic and experimental nature, aimed at study and construction of the effective technologies implemented for production and quality control of luminescent lamps.
The basic result of the project - production of model samples of the following:
- safe mercury gas discharge and luminescent lamps;
- means for research and calculation activities;
- means for technological control and quality control of gas discharge lamps;
The project will also result in development of the following:
- methods of mathematical simulation and calculated design;
- methods and means for technological control and quality control of gas discharge lamps.
At this stage the following methods will be developed:
- Mathematical simulation and calculated design;
- Technological control and quality control for gas discharge lamps; recommendations will be given as far as technological and environmental modes associated with mass production of LL and GDL with the safe contents of mercury.
Environmental safety of GDL, LL and TL will be provided by implementation of the newly developed methods above and introduction of the techniques reducing mercury contents in the lamps.
The activities will be backgrounded by the newly developed and predeveloped by the authors technical solutions, partially implemented in light engineering sites. Although the analysis of the accumulated data reveals that the basic results will be achieved at the expense of the brand new methods which are subject to patenting procedure.
The predeveloped lamp concepts, technological cycles (TC) and the production modes (safe evacuation, training and quality control methods) will be recommended for mastering of mass lamp production at the available equipment. Introduction of the recommended TC will minimize labor consumption of the operations associated with open mercury as well as to decrease the unsealing risk for mercury-containing vessels, thus providing safer labor environment at the assembly lines and upgrading labor effectiveness.
Earlier the authors of the project had developed the experimental facilities and diagnostic methods for low-temperature plasma, successfully implemented in powerful laser facilities. Plausibility of safe GDL and LL based on the discharge in mercury vapors was demonstrated by the project authors at the stage of development of lamp model samples, assigned for the water detoxication and industrial waste regeneration facilities. The previous studies fulfilled by the authors allowed them to formulate the basic principles for optimization of technological processes offering solution to environmental problems and the ones associated with implementation of gas discharge sources of optical radiation.
As a result the material and energy saving LL meeting the domestic and international standards for mercury admissible concentration will be produced.
In the process of testing the brand new design concept - the models of safe lamps, separate technical solutions will be verified and calculated-theoretical dependencies of lamp characteristics from facility parameters and operational modes, in particular, the ambient temperature, will be confirmed. The calculated results based on the equation of state for low-temperature discharge plasma were in good coordination with the experimental data. Further on the above dependencies are to be specified in wider spectrum of the initial parameters. This will serve as the basis for development of the algorithm for automation of calculation of the optimum optional design concepts applied to low pressure gas discharge lamps and luminescent lamps.
Several possibilities for significant upgrading of the implemented technological modes, processes, cycles and equipment as to minimization of mercury intoxication risk and drastic reduction of mercury consumption at production of optical radiation sources were tested.
Development of safe mercury lamps implies studies of mercury absorption by the structural elements of gas discharge lamps. As for environmental issues it is planned to solve the problem of mercury contents minimization alongside with minimization of mercury technological losses both theoretically and experimentally with the resulting technical proposals.
Feasibility of the project tasks solution is being confirmed by certain literature sources and the previously done scientific and technical developments verified by the experienced production staff.
The team of the project executors is complied of the three basic groups. The first one consists of VNIIEF research staff, being the leaders within theoretical and experimental studies of low-temperature plasma, gas discharge and processes occurring in gas discharge lamps. This group fulfills the experimental part of the project, develops TO, mathematical models and algorithm for calculation of the optimum lamp options.
The second group comprised of VNIIEF research associates and developers of gas discharge lamps and electric vacuum materials, provide applied research, develop the required materials and the effective methods of technological and quality control, as well as modeling of safe gas discharge lamps, including the luminescent ones.
The third group includes design engineers involved into development of technological equipment for electric vacuum production and VNIIEF developers of the effective technological modes and cycles associated with production of lamps and all the necessary tooling, who will master the technology, produce and test the optional lamps and their elements, materials, modes and cycles with the finite goal to develop the substantiated technical recommendations for mass production of interest.
The scientific results and technical solutions under the project will be patented, published and reported at scientific conferences.
Marketing studies of the literature, patents and advertising materials confirm the urgency and the interest expressed by the foreign collaborates to the project involved into production of lamps.