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Contactless in-sleep monitoring of human state

#2548


Development of Contactless Technology for Monitoring of the Human Cardiovascular Functional State During Night Sleep in order to Predict Acute and Chronic Pathologies

Tech Area / Field

  • MED-DID/Diagnostics & Devices/Medicine
  • BIO-INF/Bioinformatics/Biotechnology
  • SAT-MAS/Manned Space Station/Space, Aircraft and Surface Transportation

Status
8 Project completed

Registration date
21.06.2002

Completion date
04.07.2008

Senior Project Manager
Lapidus O V

Leading Institute
Russian Academy of Sciences / Institute of Biomedical Problems, Russia, Moscow

Supporting institutes

  • Russian Academy of Sciences / Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, Russia, Moscow

Collaborators

  • University of Applied Sciences / Hochschule Zittau/Görlitz, Germany, Zittau\nDeutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. / Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Germany, Köln\nJenasensoric e.V., Germany, Jena\nCharite Clinic of Humboldt University, Germany, Berlin

Project summary

Purpose of the Project.

Purpose of the proposed project is to make the space medicine technologies of lesscontact recording of physiological signals from sleeping humans the matter-of-fact routine of the terrestrial health service including health evaluation of patients with acute and chronic diseases, assessment of risk of sudden death in sleep, and determination of the functional reserve in essentially healthy people.

Statement of the Problem.

From the very first steps, space medicine has attributed much importance to studies of the sleep-wakefulness cycle in the unusual for humans long-term exposure to the environment of space vehicles. It is a known fact that implementation of spaceflight program challenges both mental and physical ability of crew members and is the cause of a permanent psycho-emotional stress. Therefore, providing for normal sleep is among top priorities of the program of health support and monitoring of cosmonauts on space flight. Polygraph methods widely used by clinicians to investigate night sleep turned to be unsuitable for space flight and in 1986-87 initiated was development of a no-contact method the principle of which was to record ballistocardiography with a transducer secured to the cosmonaut’s sleeping bag. Ballistocardiography consists of recording myocardium contractions by registration of body vibrations which connected with the cardiac blood ejection in large vessels. The first ballistocardiogram records in microgravity were made in 1977 aboard space station Salyut-7 (10). In 1991, lesscontact ballistocardiograms were received using a transducer attached to cosmonaut’s sleeping bag (3). In 1992-1996, within the joint Russian/Austrian space science program an original methodology for in-sleep investigations was developed as a part of the crew health monitoring program (11,12). The most comprehensive investigation of the night circulation in humans on space flight was performed by cosmonaut-physician V.V. Polyakov in his record long (14 mos.) mission (5). Thus, a new method of evaluating the human body functional reserve was developed first to meet the needs of space medicine.

Under this project, we propose to devise, based on the system for lesscontact recording of physiological signals, specific technologies to evaluate physiological functions in patients with acute or chronic cardiac diseases and predict negative health disorders in normal people during night sleep. The lesscontact night monitoring bears much promise. Implementation of this project will lay the fundament, in the form of technologies, for designing and production of principally new personal recorders. These recorders can win popularity among healthy people living in harsh environment or occupationally exposed to stresses.

Institutes participating in project directly linked with goals and objectives of the proposed project. SSC RF-IBMP RAS, the lead in health care for space crews, is distinguished by expertise in utilization of various methods of evaluating physiological functions in humans in space orbits.

Next participant in the project is the Institute of Radiotechnics and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IRE RAS) with a multiyear experience in cooperation with different medical institutions in designing ingenious systems and devices which incorporate innovative developments of radio electronics and computation.

Meeting ISTC Goals and Objectives.

In keeping with the ISTC goals and objectives, our project is aimed at re-focusing SSC RF-IBMP RAS employees from involvement in space industries onto peaceful research and development, specifically on creation of new technologies and means for lesscontact monitoring of the human functional state during night sleep in clinic and preventive medicine.

The project will foster the scientific-theoretic aspects of in-sleep studies of the cardiovascular system. However, attention will be primarily given to applied investigations including test development of new technologies. Prototype of anticipated new technologies is the one currently used for evaluation of cosmonauts’ health and, hence, the case in point is re-conversion of space technologies for peaceful purposes, which is the final goal declared by ISTC.

Scope of Activities.

All efforts on this project will be directed toward development of technologies to evaluate body functioning based on lesscontact recording of physiological data during night sleep, and design of associated devices.

Milestones of the project will be the following:

– R&D of various in-sleep data recording devices with a high noise immunity and data quality;


– development of PC-compatible automated systems for data recording and storage characterized by miniature size, noise immunity, robustness and low cost;
– development of software to analyze recorded signals, identify and isolate information, related to the cardiac, respiratory and regulatory functions, motor activity and muscle strain;
– comparative evaluation with data of traditional clinical investigations with the help of routine clinical apparatuses;
– search for ways of data visualization and methods of data evaluation that will comply with requirements of clinicians and mass users’ demands;
– development of the Methodical Guidelines for User.

Role of Foreign Collaborators.

1. The International Collaborator shall provide contact with foreign investigators dealing with similar problems.


2. The International Collaborator shall contribute to development of the project and detail implementation plans.
3. Some types of tests of the technologies and hard- and software can be conducted at Collaborator’s facilities.
4. The International Collaborator shall regularly exchange information on project progress and participate in joint progress reviews.
5. It is assumed that joint seminars, symposia and oversight meetings will be arranged.
6. The International Collaborator shall assist in preparation of proposals for introduction and promotion of the technology and hard- and software, and the global outreach program.
7. Results of the project are to be shared based on mutual agreements including future commercial projects.


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