Gene Fund of Kazakhstan Fruit Forests
Preservation and Utilization of Genetic Polymorphism of Kazakhstan Fruit Forests
Tech Area / Field
- AGR-FOD/Food & Nutrition/Agriculture
3 Approved without Funding
Institute of Botany and Phytointroductoion, Kazakstan, Almaty
- The Republican Government Enterprise on the basic of economic control rights “Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems” , Kazakstan, Gvardeiski
- United States Department of Agriculture / Agricultural Research Service, USA, MD, Beltsville
Project summaryKazakhstan territory is related to Central Asian center of origin of agricultural crops. Eighteen agricultural crops were domesticated for the first time in this area. Wild congeners of agricultural crops now are considered the biopersity that is very important to agriculture. The main components of agricultural biopersity include fruit trees (Malus, Armeniaca and others), nucliferous plants (Pistacia, Juglans, Amigdalus) and vine. They represent unique genetic resources for selection purposes and horticulture development in northern hemisphere. Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction together with American colleagues from ARS USDA showed that Kazakhstan wild fruit forests possess genetic basis for tolerance to heat, frost and drought, diseases and pests.
Kazakhstan fruit forests are located at the foot of Western and Northern Tien Shan, Djungar Alatau and Tarbagatai mountains. They prevent desertification of the area, soften the climate, control drainage regime and provide favorable conditions for agriculture in the valleys and plain territories.
Now Kazakhstan wild fruit forests and their genetic resources are under threat of disappearance. Half of the species of fruit biopersity is included in the Red Book of Kazakhstan. The analysis of degradation rate of wild fruit forests shows that they could disappear completely by 2050 –2150.
The aim of the project is elaboration of a complex technology for preservation and reasonable utilization of the gene fund of Kazakhstan fruit forests in the nature (in-situ) and in the culture (ex-situ).
Therefore, the project includes determination of precise location of the fruit forests in Kazakhstan mountains, complex inventory of biopersity in the forests, including gene inventory and assessment of form persity of target wild species, determination of the species in the biopersity that need special protective measures, restoration and utilization. The materials obtained during the inventory will serve as the basis for elaboration of measures on reservation of genetic resources of Kazakhstan fruit forests in the nature. Besides, it is planned to preserve in the cultures specially valuable genetic resources of Kazakhstan and to elaborate technologies for long term storage and mass propagation in order to restore violated natural populations, utilization for selection purposes, for plantation and domestication.
Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction and its specialized laboratory investigate fruit forests of Kazakhstan for more than 60 years. Under leadership of Professor Djangaliev D.A. method for complex genetic inventory of mountain fruit forests has been elaborated. Using this method, 30 genetic reservations of 2053-hectare area were selected (apple-trees, apricot, pistachios, nut-trees, almond-tree, etc) in fruit forests of Kazakhstan. 150 especially valuable intraspecific forms of wild apple-trees and 50 intraspecific forms of wild apricots were selected in the nature and preserved in the culture. The selected forms have passed introduction analysis for standard reaction of gene-types and hybridologic control showing genetic conditionality of the selected features, their marker character. These genetically conditional forms are preserved in the culture and in the form of live plant collections in experimental gardens (13.6 hectares) of the Institute.
Research Agricultural Institute possesses modern equipment and technologies for cryogenic storage of plant reproductive material and mass cloning.
The results of the project will be used both in Kazakhstan and abroad. It is planned to transfer technologies for inventory of forest biopersity, preservation of wild fruit forests and selected plants in the nature, and technologies for their preservation and propagation to the Committee of Forestry, Fishery, and Hunting Grounds of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Protection of Kazakhstan that is responsible for mountains wild fruit forests in the Republic. This technologies would promote development of nursery forests to produce planting stock for restoration of violated natural territories.
It is planned to publish a book on preservation and effective utilization of gene fund of Kazakhstan fruit forests. This book could be scientific and methodological basis for development of nature protection measures in different countries in similar regions. Besides, selected during project realization genetic material of valuable fruit trees, nuciferous plants and vines could be used in the world selection process through collaborators of the project. The collaborators would supply with the necessary technological information and would provide reviewing of the reports and other materials of the project.