Influenza of Birds of Western Siberia
Monitoring of Influenza A Viruses in Populations of Birds of Western Siberia
Tech Area / Field
- BIO-CGM/Cytology, Genetics and Molecular Biology/Biotechnology
3 Approved without Funding
State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR, Russia, Novosibirsk reg., Koltsovo
- Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals, Russia, Novosibirsk reg., Novosibirsk\nIvanovsky Institute of Virology, Russia, Moscow
- US Department of Agriculture / Agricultural Research Service / Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, USA, GA, Athens
Project summaryProject’s Goal. The main goal of the project is to study influenza А viruses circulating in avian populations of different ecological complexes on the territory of Western Siberia.
The Urgency of Research. Understanding the processes of evolution and geographical distribution of avian influenza А virus requires permanent monitoring and collection of ecologo-virological data taking into account the specificity of natural conditions of a region (nesting and wintering areas, routes and time of seasonal migrations, intensity and other characteristics of inter-species interactions).
Western Siberia with its lowland hydromorphic landscapes of different types is the nesting area of a great number of water and pre-water avian species. Two largest migration routes of North-Eurasian birds, the West-Siberian and the Indo-Asian ones, run over this territory. Birds migrating along these migration routes nest both on the territory of Western Siberia and far to the north and east – in the Palearctic Zone and the Far East. Wintering areas of birds migrating over the territory of Western Siberia are Africa, Indostan Peninsula, and the Black, the Caspian and the Mediterranean Sea coasts where the habitats of different avian populations can overlap.
Order of the Project’s Activities. The Project implementation will involve collecting field material (feces, cloacal and tracheal washouts) from birds caught alive, shot or found dead in spring and autumn. Collection of field material will be performed by the employees of the participating institutions on the basis of ornithological stations of IAS&E SB RAS. The collected material will be used for isolation of viruses by infecting chicken embryos and cell cultures. The obtained viral isolates will be identified and typed with the hemagglutination inhibition reaction (HI), the fluorescent antibody method (FAM) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The specificities of the amplified sequences will be verified by sequencing of short (150-200 bp) nucleotide sequences.
It is proposed to form a collection of influenza А virus strains circulating in birds on the territory of Western Siberia.
The genes coding for hemagglutinin (H), neurominidase (N), nucleocapsid protein (NP) and nonstructural proteins (NS) of the most representative influenza A virus strains will be fully sequenced. The comparative analysis of the obtained genetic and autologous amino acid sequences with analogous sequences of influenza A viruses available in specialized databases will be performed to determine their phylogenetic position and the interrelation between the structure and the function of viral proteins.
Storage and statistical treatment of obtained results will be performed with a specialized ecologo-virological database located on the server of the D.I.Ivanovsky Institute of Virology RAMS. Within the scope of the present Project, it is proposed to develop a schematic diagram, to optimize protocols and to develop web-technologies for remote use of specialized ecologo-virological databases (taking influenza А virus as an example). In particular, it is planned to unify the infological structure and access protocols for the ecologo-virological database (D.I.Ivanovsky Institute of Virology RAMS) and the ornithological database (IAS&E SB RAS).
Expected Results of Fundamental Value. It is proposed to obtain valuable information for the analysis of one of the fundamental problems of today’s virology – transmission of viruses by migrant birds. Concrete data on avian influenza A viruses will be obtained for the West-Siberian flyway. The developed information technologies will be used to make up the cadastre of flyways and nesting areas of West-Siberian birds contributing to the maintenance of influenza А viruses circulation; the cartographic analysis will be performed to evaluate the epidemic potential of influenza А viruses in Western Siberia; a mathematical model of transmission and emergence of new variants of influenza А viruses will be developed and verified (taking Western Siberia as am example). The developed mathematical models will be verified as applied to other viral infectious agents transmitted by migrant birds: Sindbis, West Nile, Dhori, Getah, Californian encephalitis serocomplex, tick-borne encephalitis and other agents.