Database on animal diseases in Republic of Kazakhstan
System of Forecasting and Monitoring of Spread of Infectious Diseases among Farm Animals on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Step I. Creation of a Database and Monitoring Laboratory on Especially Dangerous Infectious Diseases among Animals in
Tech Area / Field
- AGR-DIS/Disease Surveillance/Agriculture
- ENV-MRA/Modelling and Risk Assessment/Environment
- INF-OTH/Other/Information and Communications
3 Approved without Funding
The Republican Government Enterprise on the basic of economic control rights “Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems” , Kazakstan, Gvardeiski
- Association Institute of Non-proliferation, Kazakstan, Almaty
- Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA, WA, Richland
Project summaryThe objective of this project step is creation of a database on especially dangerous infections of animals with its subsequent use in mathematical modeling and development of a system for forecasting spread of diseases over the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The Republic of Kazakhstan is located between the states of Eastern Europe and Central Asia and that results in its key role in spread of infections reported both in Europe and in Asia. Exotic diseases of animals such as rinderpest, African swine fever, catarrhal fever of sheep (bluetongue) are not registered on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan but are of great danger for it and may be introduced from other countries through imported animals, livestock products, forage, migrating animals, by water routes and so on. Sheep pox and foot-and-mouth disease of farm animals are very dangerous too because their recurring outbreaks result in great economical losses. Expansion of economical, trade and tourist relations between countries, the increased significance of different transport means, the concentration of large populations of animals on limited territories in large-scale stock-breeding farms, absence of disinfectants and protective means in necessary amounts enhance considerably the possibility of introduction and spread of extremely dangerous diseases of animals and fowl.
The territory of the country is perse in its natural and geographic conditions, its fauna numbers a lot of species, seasonal migration routes of wild animals and fowl cross its spaces. Alongside with this mutual contacts with foreign countries have become more intensive last years. The above factors favor the intensive circulation of micro flora and make emergence of perse pathogenic microorganisms (including viruses) not registered here previously more possible.
Wild artiodactyls are susceptible to a number of viral infections including rinderpest, sheep pox and foot-and-mouth disease, and may serve the reservoir of these infections and origin of their dispersion through the vast territories.
For many years the employees of the SRAI have been involved in activity aimed at eradication of epizooties both on the territory of Kazakhstan and in neighbor countries. Great experience in epizootological investigations will allow comprehensive and competent collection and systemization of data on assessment of epizootic situations (data on registration and eradication of infection outbreaks, other deliverables, information of economical, geographical, meteorological nature).
Specialists of SRAI possess great experience in the sphere of isolation and identification of agents causing disastrous infections of people and animals and their immunobiological characterization. At SRAI there are unique collections of microbial strains, of plant pathogens and the cereal gene fund.
Versatile information on peculiarities of infectious diseases of animals, on results of epizootological investigations is not systemized yet, uncoordinated and is not used properly in modeling processes of possible infection spread. Efficient use of this information will be possible when multiple data is entered into electronic database with appropriate logical structure and management system. Association Institute of Non-Proliferation (AIN) may do this work. This organization participates successfully in realization of joint projects (AIN-SRAI) within framework of CTR Program as well as renders informational and technical support to SRAI.
The primary objective will be achieved by accomplishing a number of tasks:
Task 1. Analysis and systemization of information on especially dangerous infectious diseases of farm animals (rinderpest, sheep pox, foot-and-mouth disease)
o Collection of epizootological data on especially dangerous infections on the territory of RK and neighbor countries for last two decades
o Analysis of previously obtained and collected information, its classification
o Preparation and processing of information prior to entering it into database
Task 2. Development and creation of database on spread of specially dangerous infectious diseases of animals
2.1 Development of electronic database logical structure
2.2 Database filling and testing
2.3 Creation of subject layers for RK electronic map to accomplish the Project tasks
2.4 Interfacing electronic map to created database
Task 3. Organization of a laboratory for monitoring
3.2 Training of specialists to methods of epizootological studies
3.3 Optimization of laboratory research methods for specially dangerous infections
Task 4. Development of conception for mathematical modeling of spread of specially dangerous infections on the territory of RK
4.1 Search for and analysis of existing models for spread of infectious diseases of animals
4.2 Analysis of created database and development of conception for mathematical modeling of spread of dangerous infections of animals as well as assessment of effectiveness of a response system (measures on prevention and elimination of epizooties consequences)
In the course of the Project implementation epizootological data on spread of especially dangerous infections (sheep pox, FMD, rinderpest) on the territory of RK and neighbor countries will be collected. It is planned also to systemize and analyze available information collected for previous 2 decades.
Moreover, FAO and IOE information on rinderpest, sheep pox and FMD outbreaks for the same period will be requested.
Routine reports, descriptions of separate cases and outbreaks of infectious diseases, monographs, bulletins, articles, as well as statements and reports of commissions, statements of laboratory examinations, etc. will be used alongside with usual deliverables in the course of collecting epizootological information for RK.
Common regularities of an epizootological process and its peculiarities in concrete cases (prevalence and enzootic nature, seasonality and periodicity, epizooty dynamics, etc.) will be taken into consideration in the course of epizootological investigation.
Through comparative historical description periodicity of epizooties and their affiliation with social changes, acts of God, etc. will be determined. Through comparative geographical description facts of emergence and spread of the above-mentioned diseases with territorial and geographical reference as well as nature-and-climate and economical factors will be fixed.
Epizootological studies are to be carried out on the basis of laboratory for monitoring. It is planned in the project to equip such laboratory, to test the equipment, to optimize laboratory methods of investigation and to train the staff.
The obtained data will be analyzed and classified; it is planned to prepare then a classifier with a number of sections and subsections that will serve as a guiding line in future work to develop forms of the electronic database.
The results of analysis and systemization will be shown in tables and diagrams.
Implementation of the Project will be a prolongation of the activity on use of telecommunication system created according to ISTC Project CSP-6 “Establishment of technical base to create the database on non-proliferation of dual-use biological materials in the Republic of Kazakhstan”. The technical base that includes satellite station for ensure dedicated channel with the Internet provider, upgraded local networks, a number of technical means for continuous capital equipment work will allow to create and constantly actualize planed Database on dangerous animal infections.
It is planned of entering information by means of database management system Microsoft Access 2000 functioning in Windows. Additional personal computers that will serve as servers for collection, storage and processing data on subjects of the Project will be necessary for successful database performance.
In the process of developing logical database structure software functional tools for work of a user without special skills in programming are to be created.
Database structure and perse information in tables on spread and peculiarities of above-mentioned infectious diseases of animals will serve as its dateline.
Visualization of the collected data by creation of subject layers of an electronic map will be the next task of the Project and this will be the basis to develop geo-information system (GIS) for the problem under consideration later on. One of the steps towards creation of such GIS will be establishment of association between electronic map of RK and developed database.
Accomplishment of the previous tasks of the Project will allow initiating development of approaches to modeling processes of spread of specially dangerous infectious diseases of animals on the territory of RK and assessment of response system effectiveness. While implementing this task the factors influencing the processes of disease spread will be analyzed as well as conception of taking into account possible responses to outbreaks will be developed for a mathematical model. Analysis of known system software and software tools that are necessary for development of a mathematic modeling program will be made.
The following results of the Project activity will be expected:
- Epizootological information on especially dangerous infectious diseases of farm animals (FMD, sheep pox, rinderpest) on the territory of RK will be collected, analyzed and systemized
- Electronic database with appropriate logical structure and management system will be created on the basis of collected information
- Laboratory for monitoring will be organized; the specialists will be trained to methods of epizootological investigation; relevant methods will be optimized
- Obtained data will be visualized by creation of subject layers of RK electronic map, it will be correlated with database for further development of surveillance system on spread of infectious diseases of animals
- On the basis of analysis of existing models conception of mathematical modeling of infectious diseases spread on the territory of RK that will consider effectiveness of response measures for prevention and eradication of epizootic situations will be developed
- Basis for development of system for forecasting and monitoring of especially dangerous infectious diseases on the territory of RK and appropriate response system will be created.
Implementation of the proposed Project will imply involvement of ex-military objects and weapons specialists of participating institutions into peaceful activity and demonstration of results that meets completely the objectives of ISTC.