Natural and Synthetic Sorbents
Natural and Synthetic Ion Exchange Sorbents
Tech Area / Field
- CHE-POL/Polymer Chemistry/Chemistry
3 Approved without Funding
Institute of Chemical Sciences, Kazakstan, Almaty
- The Republican Government Enterprise on the basic of economic control rights “Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems” , Kazakstan, Gvardeiski
- Universitat Leipzig / Institut für Technische Chemie, Germany, Leipzig\nState University of New York University at Buffalo / Department of Chemistry, USA, NY, Buffalo
Project summaryThe aim of the project - the development of a new sorbents based on biocompatible synthetic or chemically modified natural polymers with a high concentration, the availability of active groups capable of effectively removing organic and inorganic compounds, pathogens and toxic substances from aqueous solutions, soils, biological substrates, which makes them promising as hemo- and enterosorbents needed in the process managed detoxification of body fluids, purification of sewage, ground water from ions of heavy metal, radioactive isotopes, organic contaminants, air from the waste gases of chemical, metallurgical enterprises.
The relevance of the proposed project is to establish a broad-purpose sorbents with a set of valuable physical and chemical properties, the most important of which are high mechanical strength, high radiation, chemical, thermal stability, high rate of absorption. They will be suitable not only as effective sorbents, but also materials with immunostimulanting, tonic, organoprotective effect of endo-, exogenous- and ecotoxins in contact in the production conditions and living in ecologically unfavorable regions.
The viability of the creation of a new highly permeable sorbents based on plant polymer and reactive multifunctional monomers with ion exchange, chelating and redox groups linked to their improved kinetic and capacity characteristics, as well as high selectivity for removing organic and inorganic ions in comparison with similar materials of gel and macroporous structure. Widespread use in various fields of science and technology has made them an integral and necessary part of waste-free, environmentally friendly production patterns.
Expected results and their application. As a result of the research it will bring the following outcomes:
- develop the conditions for synthesis of new sorbents based on hydrolysis lignin (multi-tonnage waste product of a hydrolysis industry) and reactive multifunctional monomers;
- create the selective hemo- and enterosorbents that are compatible with contacting media and effective in medicine in the process of removing toxins from the body, separation and purification of pharmaceuticals from the culture fluid;
- obtain the selective sorbents with improved kinetic and complexing properties of noble, rare, scattered, non-ferrous and heavy metal ions; characterize the structure and durability of the formed complex compounds;
- determine the sorption-desorption properties of the samples, as well as their capacity for repeated regeneration for an effective reusable in hydrometallurgy for selective concentration of metal ions from industrial multicomponent solutions, purification of the waste, interlayer water for oil extraction, food, agricultural lands rehabilitation contaminated with radionuclides and heavy metal ions (mercury, lead, etc.).
The results for the design and creation of sorbents based on non-toxic source of reagents and industrial wastes have value for both researchers and consumers alike, that causes social, economic and environmental impact (management of hydrolysis industrys waste by their processing; improvement of the human health through improve the effectiveness of the proposed hemo-, enterosorbents by selective removal of toxic, pathogenic components from plasma, blood, etc.; improving water quality by increasing the selectivity of sorption and selective concentration of noble, non-ferrous, heavy, rare, scattered metals ions and radioactive nucleides from drinking water and waste water, multi-productive and lessproductive industrial solutions; replacement of imports on domestic sorbents).
The use of cheap local raw materials, large-tonnage waste products and availability of original methods of their processing into environmentally friendly products for multipurpose and repeated use allow to reduce cost of the proposed materials. This will increase the share of domestic goods in the domestic market; will provide a significant increase in production volumes, revenues, creation of additional jobs that will solve the problem of employment of highly qualified specialists. In addition, the integrated use of recycled materials would solve the problem of protecting the environment through sustainable use of natural resources and recycling at no additional cost for their transportation. The effectiveness of the proposed development of materials due to the way they are received do not require sophisticated technological equipment, corrosion-resistant designs, stringent conditions of synthesis, do not differ multistage and do not imply the emission of harmful and toxic substances in the atmosphere, which makes the process of their synthesis relaxed environment. The proposed development will solve the problem of import substitution, creation of competitive domestic short supply sorbents capable of selectively extract precious metals from industrial solutions (the Akbakay deposit), which will increase the gold reserves of the Republic.
Given the rich resource base of rare metals such as rhenium in Kazakhstan, their high cost on the world market and an unlimited demand for sorbents in the country, we can easily evaluate the economic and environmental feasibility of the design, development and effective use of domestic ion-exchange resins for the selective extraction and preextraction rare and scattered metals from ore and technogenic raw materials. Proposed new lignin ion exchangers contribute to the solution of environmental problems through the integrated use of non-renewable mineral resources and skilled recycling constantly renewable tonnage waste of hydrolysis industry.
Scope of activities. With the support of the ISTC is assumed to synthesize new sorbents, successfully combining a wide range of functionally active groups, giving them a number of specific properties and determinants of unlimited field of their practical application. The proposed program of study consists of 2 stages, the implementation of each of which has a definite scientific and practical significance.
The first stage: Synthesis and study of reactive monomers and polyfunctional sorbents based on synthesized monomers and hydrolysis lignin. As a result, 1 stage consists in the following:
- Test of the reactive monomers and study their basic physical and chemical characteristics;
- Investigate the methods of involving them into the reaction of polymer formation;
- Characterize the feature of structure, porosity and composition of the hydrolysis lignin and obtain the methods of its activation and modification;
- Synthesize the highly permeable nanodimensional lignincontaining sorbents;
- Investigate the physical, chemical and sorption properties of the sorbents.
The second stage: The development of the methods of synthesis and study of the mechanism of the formation of the synthetic and chemically modified polyfunctional and selective sorbents by polycondensation, copolymerization of different monomers, with or without subsequent modification of the synthesized/natural polymers using reactive compounds.
As a result, 2 stage consists in the following:
- Synthesis of a new polyfunctional and selective sorbents with the predetermined set of functional groups and valuable physical and chemical properties;
- The determination of their sorption and regeneration properties relative to gallium, rhenium, mercury and other heavy, rare, scattered, and radioactive metal ions. The creation of the progressive competitive technologies of the selective extraction of metal ions from ore raw material;
- The elaboration of the recommendations for an effective use of sorbents as a chelating reagents and its application in the processes of the hemosorption, separation and purification of physiologically active substances, drugs, ions of different metals;
- The valuation of the possibility of using of sorbents for the creation of diagnostic screening systems of disorders of lipid metabolism in diabetes mellitus and control compensation of metabolic changes at diabetes.
Meeting ISTC Goals and Objectives. There will be an opportunity to scientists associated with the creation of weapons of mass destruction, to refocus its activities on research on radioactive waste technology, the purification of drinking and waste water and biological fluids from pathogenic contaminants in the waste-free technologies based on the developments of the scientists of ICHS. According to this it will make ease to transition to a market economy and the integration of the scientists and specialists of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the world scientific community. The preconditions for the solution of some international technical problems (especially the disposal of radioactive wastes, toxic substances and pathogens from sewage and other waters) will be established.
Role of Foreign Collaborators. In accordance with the volume of activities under the proposed project with foreign collaborators will be provided:
- The exchange of information during the project implementation;
- Providing the comments on technical reports (quarterly, annual final, etc.) submitted by project participants to the ISTC;
- Participation in technical monitoring of project activities performed by ISTC staff;
- Conduction of joint seminars and workshops.
Technical Approach and Methodology. The implementation of the project will be applied widely known methods of organic synthesis, chemistry of high-molecular compounds, ion exchange, analytical, physical chemistry, as well as physical and chemical methods of research. The assumed approach based on the use of materials and reagents with a wide raw-material base in the Republic. Those are large-tonnage waste plant material in the form of sludge-lignin - the waste of the Shymkent hydrolysis factory, aromatic and aliphatic polyamines, pyridine derivatives, vinyl, acryl, quinoid monomers, epoxy resins, produced on an industrial scale. Using the reactions of polymerization, polycondensation and chemical modification, including polymer-analogous transformations will provide one to create new multifunctional materials. Study of their structure, composition and properties will be carried out by a combination of modern spectroscopic, elemental and chemical methods of analysis by well known standard methods in accordance with all-Union State Standards for devices and installations that have passed metrological control. Synthesis and testing of the sorbent samples on the radiation resistance, toxicity, and sorption of pathogens, toxic contaminants and radioactive contaminants from drinking water, waste water and biological fluids will be conducted by the laboratory staff of ICHS and RIBSP. As a result of research will be obtained a new experimental data on the development of new synthetic and chemically modified natural sorbents, providing accelerated sorption extraction of ions and molecules of antibiotics, hormones, etc.
The presented project will be performed by highly skilled researchers of ICHS and RIBSP. It will be provided by patent information services under the patent law of Kazakhstan. All participants of the project have extensive experience in the study, design, and creation of multifunctional polymeric materials, and are fluent in modern physical and chemical methods of analysis of high-molecular compounds.