Monitoring of metapneumovirus infection
Monitoring of avian metapneumovirus infection (MPVI) in the territory of Kazakhstan
Tech Area / Field
- AGR-DIS/Disease Surveillance/Agriculture
- BIO-SFS/Biosafety and BioSecurity/Biotechnology
3 Approved without Funding
The Republican Government Enterprise on the basic of economic control rights “Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems” , Kazakstan, Gvardeiski
- University of Liverpool, UK, Liverpool
Project summaryThe Project aim. Monitoring for the dissemination of metapneumovirus infection among poultry and wild birds in the territory of Kazakhstan.
Current status. Avian metapneumovirus infection (MPVI) is respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the upper respiratory tract (nasal passages, trachea), infraorbital sinus, accompanied by shortness of breath, wheezing, sneezing, nasal discharge.
The name of infection combines two respiratory syndrome: inflammation of the nose and trachea in turkeys (TRT) and swollen head syndrome in chickens (SHS). Turkeys, chickens, peacocks and pheasants are susceptible to infection. The disease is caused by a virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Currently known serological subtypes A, B, C (Colorado) and D. There is a high probability of occurrence of new antigenic and genotypic variants of the virus. The pathogen spreads horizontally and by airborne route. The disease affects birds of all ages. This infection characterized by rapid spread and high contagiousness. Economic damage consists of loss due to mortality (1-20%), high feed conversion, increased culling, reduced productivity (in broilers - reduced average daily gain, in the hens - reduced egg production by 5-30% hatchability of chicks), the cost of antibiotic therapy. The disease recorded in many European countries with a developed poultry industry: in Italy, Spain, Israel, Hungary, Germany, Netherlands, Japan, American continent and Asia.
The first preventive measure conducted for the purpose prevent the introduction of a pathogen in the farming – is compliance with veterinary and sanitary rules. Protection of livestock from MPVI can be provided only by specific prevention through vaccination of poultry with live and inactivated vaccines, depending on the group of birds. One must not forget that in the prevention of MPVI cellular immunity is important. Therefore, spray or intranasal (ocular) administration is the best methods of vaccination.
In the last years a number of poultry farms in the central and north-eastern regions of Kazakhstan among broilers and hens - hens has appeared pathological situation of unknown etiology, characterized by a primary lesion of respiratory organs. Veterinary services of poultry farms were in a difficult situation as complex clinical symptoms with respiratory syndrome, is inherent in many known viral and bacterial infections of birds. Laboratory examination of sick birds confirmed the emergence of a new кazakh poultry livestock infection, namely avian metapneumovirus infection.
According to the infection in the domestic literature, information is not complete. Therefore in this work, we decided to give a detailed analysis of the literature and our own data on avian metapneumovirus infection.
From this, it follows that avian metapneumovirus infection has been and remains relevant in the majority of countries, including Kazakhstan.
The project’ influence on progress in this area. As a result of the proposed project will be carried out epizootological monitoring, isolated isolates of avian MPVI, defined area of infection on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan, defined serosubtypes of metapneumovirus infections circulating in the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan. We will explore the cultural, pathogenic and molecular genetic characteristics of isolates MPVI.
The participants’ expertise. Employees of the RIBSP participating in the project have extensive experience in the field of biotechnology, virology, molecular and genetic engineering, in particular to conduct the epidemiological monitoring of infectious diseases, isolation, cultivation, determining immunogenicity and virulence of animal and avian viruses of dangerous diseases, on development of manufacturing technology and regulatory and technical documents of live and inactivated vaccines. At the Institute conducted comprehensive studies of the foot and mouth disease, sheep pox, contagious ecthyma of sheep and goats, rabies, epizootic lymphangitis, trichophytia of cattle and camels, Aujeszky's disease, Newcastle disease (ND), classical swine fever, infectious hepatitis, parvovirus enteritis, canine distemper, infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) of birds infectious bursal disease (IBD) of chickens. In recent years the Institute has mastered the technique of obtaining of vector strains to create recombinant vaccines against infections such as influenza (H5N1, H1N1), brucellosis and tuberculosis.
Implementation of the project in RIBSP will prevent the introduction and spread of infectious agents outside the controlled area, and will not affect the environment as well as working with pathogenic agents will be conducted in isolated rooms, which are equipped with all the veterinary and sanitary rules when working with agents of especially dangerous infections.
It should be mentioned that in RIBSP created the necessary conditions for work with agents of especially dangerous infections groups I-IV pathogenicity, which is a prerequisite for companies that perform this type of work.
Expected results and their application. As a result of monitoring studies of biological samples is planned selection of domestic and wild birds to determine the geographic distribution of MPVI. We will be isolated and identified isolates of MPVI, and studied their culture, pathogenic and molecular genetic properties. The data obtained by us will be processed and published scientific articles in the rating of domestic and foreign journals, as well as pending innovative patent.
Our proposed project is in the category of applied research. Scientific application of the proposed project consists in the fact that produce new scientific data on the cultural, pathogenic and molecular genetic characteristics of isolates of the virus infection.
Scope of activities. The following activities will be implemented under the Project:
- monitoring of the epidemiological situation of MPVI in the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan
- isolation and identification of the MPVI virus;
- study of cultural properties of the MPVI isolates;
- study of pathogenic properties of the MPVI isolates on laboratory animals;
- study of molecular and genetic characteristics of the MPVI isolates.