Production of Hydrogen from Gasoline Fuels
Development of Catalytic Method for Production of Hydrogen and Hydrogen-Containing Mixtures from Methane and Propane-Butane Mixture to Increase Motor Fuel Efficiency and Improvement of the Environment
Tech Area / Field
- CHE-IND/Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Process Engineering/Chemistry
3 Approved without Funding
Institute of Organic Catalysis and Electrochemistry, Kazakstan, Almaty
- The Republican Government Enterprise on the basic of economic control rights “Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems” , Kazakstan, Gvardeiski
- Engelhard Corporation, USA, NJ, Iselin\nUniversity of Glasgow, UK, Glasgow
Project summaryThe aim of the project is the development of polyoxide low percentage catalysts of novel type over carriers and ecologically pure technology for receiving of H2-containing fuel compositions from С1, С3-С4-hydrocarbons, investigation of structural properties of optimal catalysts for determination of physical and chemical bases of action in oxidative dehydrogenation.
According to the experts of natural reserves of oil for maintenance of transport by liquid fuel will suffice on a small interval of time. The scientists and the economists forecast exhaustion the reserves of oil no more than through ten, thirty, fifty years. The civilization is on a threshold of an energy crisis. The mankind looks for ecologically pure sources of energy due to fast reduction of the reserves of oil and gas. The specialists think that the hydrogen save world. Hydrogen is practically inexhaustible renewed source of energy. It is necessary to note, that the hydrogen exceed on power consumption all compounds, which can serve as fuel: 2,6 times - natural gas, 3,3 times - liquid hydrocarbons of oil, 5 times - coal, 6,6 times - methanol, 8,5 times - cellulose etc. The hydrogen is unique ecologically clean fuel and reagent, product of which oxidation is of water vapor or liquid water. For this reason the idea of wide application in industry of "hydrogen" researches are supported by numerous "green". The pollution of an environment by exhaust gases is increased from year to year. The world auto park for last 50 years has increased more than 12 times and exceeded 630 millions of machines. The problem of preservation of an environment is sharp for world community. The high efficiency of injection of hydrogen as the additive to automobile fuels was established. It was shown that the addition of 5-15 mas. % of hydrogen from the consumption of petrol allows to lower concentration of CO, NО and hydrocarbons in the spent gases of a vehicle, and reduce the consumption of petrol on 20-30 of %. Introduction of 4-5 % of hydrogen to diesel fuel results in the same results. In the recent publications show that mixture of initial С1-С4 alkanes and the products of their oxidation (hydrogen with alcohols, olefins, aromatic compounds) can be used as the modified fuel, addition to fuel of heat and power plants, industrial enterprises, or as the additions to petrol and diesel fuels of vehicles. Such addition raises the efficiency of fuel during combustion and the cleanliness of exhaust gases of vehicles and industrial enterprises on CO, NOx, CmHn.
Taking into consideration the existing of vast alkane deposits, their improper use, and the absence of industrial ways for their processing, one may conclude that research on catalyst design and development for hydrogen synthesis from alkanes has theoretical and practical importance. Impurity of air basin of Almaty, situated in hollow of foothills of Zaiiliiski Alatau and having a lot of mobile and stationary sources of exhaust harmful substances, is the key factor of negative influence on a condition of natural environment of city. Annually in air basin of city is thrown out about 180 thousand tons of contaminants, more them 80 % is discharges of vehicle. The number them for last decade have increased up to 250 thousand units. Almaty remains among the most of ecologically unfavorable cities of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The development of the project for region is urgent and timely, that is reflected in the letter of Municipal territorial management of preservation of an environment (letter is applied). The results of development will be introduced on a competitive basis in Almaty within the framework of the Complex program of improvement of ecological conditions of city, where use of progressive technologies on 1999-2015 are provided.
We carry out search researches of catalytic oxidative conversion of С1, С3-С4 alkanes to hydrogen-containing mixtures. It was shown possibility of application of low percentage catalysts supported on granulated and block carriers on the base of polyoxide compounds and obtaining in preliminary tests from 30 up to 65 % of hydrogen.
The offered research concerns to a category of development - applied research. We assume to receive next important positive results of the practical and theoretical plan:
- Thermal stable catalysts for catalytic synthesis of hydrogen and hydrogen-containing fuel mixtures by oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes of natural and oil gases will be developed;
- The structure and morphology of optimal catalyst will be investigated by complex of physical and chemical methods (XRD, IRS, TPR, TPO, EM). The factors for promotion of activity and thermal stability of catalysts will be determined and rational possibilities for selection of catalysts will be offered.
- Optimal composition of H2-containing mixtures will be determined as modified motor and industrial fuel. The combustion temperatures and composition of exhaust gases in comparison with combustion of unmodified fuel will be investigated.
- The equipment for obtaining and submission of hydrogen-containing compositions as the addition to fuel for motor transport will be designed.
The results of the received investigations will have practical meaning for transport and combustion engines.
The realization of the project will allow the weapon scientists and engineers from SRAI redirect their talents to peaceful activities in a research and applied direction on production of hydrogen and hydrogen-containing compositions from methane and propane-butane mixtures for increase of fuel efficiency and environmental protection, being based on available scientific potential of the Institute of Organic Catalysis and Electrochemistry. The basic and applied researches, and also development of technologies in the field of environmental protection, energy production will be carried out during realization of the project. The technological experience of weapon experts from SRAI will promote integration of the scientists into international scientific community, and the results of researches will promote transition to market-based economies responsive to civil needs.
The development of structure and preparation method of multifunctional catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of methane and propane-butane mixtures for production of hydrogen-containing fuel mixtures, designing and assembling of catalytic equipment and test of optimal catalyst on enlarged installation are planned.
The interchange by information and experience, consultations, joint participation in the publications, working seminars, discussion of the technical reports will be carried out in cooperation with foreign collaborator.
The principles of designing of known already designs developed earlier in laboratory will be used at designing of catalytic reactor and installations. Experimental samples of reactors will be made on IOCE experimental base, on the base of SRAI mechanical workshops. The attraction of the experts of local factories is possible. The laboratory installation on oxidation of methane and propane-butane mixture will be assembled on the base of the available equipment, and also with use of devices acquired on means from the project. The development of technology and manufacturing of an experimental batch of the catalyst is planned on IOCE experimental base. The investigation of catalysts by modern physical and chemical methods will be carried out at IOCE on the available equipment.