Clean Coal Technologies
Ecologically Clean Waste Free Coal Technology for Power Plant with Complex Utilization of Coal
Tech Area / Field
- NNE-EPP/Electric Power Production/Non-Nuclear Energy
- CHE-IND/Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Process Engineering/Chemistry
- CHE-SYN/Basic and Synthetic Chemistry/Chemistry
- ENV-APC/Air Pollution and Control/Environment
- ENV-SPC/Solid Waste Pollution and Control/Environment
3 Approved without Funding
Kazakh National University / Combustion Problems Institute, Kazakstan, Almaty
- National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakstan / Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kazakstan, Almaty\nInstitute of Organic Catalysis and Electrochemistry, Kazakstan, Almaty
- Binghamton State University of New York, Thomas J. Watson School of Engineering and Applied Science, USA, New York\nUniversita degli Studi di Cagliari / Departamento di Ingeneria Chimica e Materiali, Italy, Sardinia, Cagliari
Project summaryThis Project is aimed at elaborating technology for ecologically clean and economically profitable coal electrical power plant making available a complex coal processing and providing slag and ash use, flue gas purification of harmful impurities and carbon dioxide utilization.
Now there are pers programs providing both scientific and practical activities aimed at reducing harmful atmospheric emission and slag output. The urgency and acuteness of atmosphere pollution is aggravated by incessantly increasing of atmospheric air content of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Since 1973 annual increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is up to 2.25%. The accumulated carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere air are approaching and somewhat exceeding the critical level when irreversible global climate changes will occur due to greenhouse effect. Also, the thinning of arctic eternal ice by 40% occurred last years may be due to greenhouse effect.
The most comprehensive program of environment protection from power plants pollution is a program "Clean coal technology" providing development and creation of a networks of demonstration coal electric power plants. This Program is coordinated and partially financed by USA Department of Energy (Clean coal technology. Demonstration program. Report DOE/FE-0387. March 1999). Under this Program within all USA territory a number of demonstration electric power plants differing ones other by their compositions and technological cycles are be constructed providing to minimize atmospheric emissions of harmful gases and ash. This aim will be achieved through elaboration of new technologies of coal combustion and creation of new more effective purification facilities. The flue gas is subjected to a long range processing that make available a very efficient NOX, SO2, CO and flue ash trapping. The reduction of formed slag amounts and CO2 emissions is achieved via reduction of specific consumption of the fuel.
However neither this Program nor other projects foresee complex utilization of all wastes of electric power plant in order to produce commercial valuable byproducts.
This proposed Project provides to process completely all formed slag and flue ash with production of chemically resistant materials and durable building bricks and blocks. In first case slag and ash as a raw material replace such natural minerals as andesite, diabase, basalt etc. In accordance with second option – to produce durable building bricks and blocks basing on the use of the product that is being developed from hydrazine (rocket fuel) and soil polluted with hydrazine as a binder.
Besides slag processing this Project provides to purify flue gas of harmful emissions, to eliminate CO2 and to synthesize it with production of oxygen containing hydrocarbons such as methanol, alcohols, acids, aldehydes which are valuable raw materials for chemical industry.
To solve problems formulated by this Project there will be used the following investigation methods and techniques: impregnation method; sol-gel method; method of mono-dispersion ashes with specific particles sizes; electron microscopy of high vacuum; RFA, EPR; NMR; derivatography; BET electron diffraction; diffraction photo-spectrometry; low-speed electron diffraction method; SHS process and other standard techniques.
This Project implementation is a contribution in a stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and reduction of toxic gas emissions. This Project implementation will favor the reduction of areas allocated for ash and slag dumps and promote decrease of minerals mining (reduction of number of quarries). to produce acid resistant materials as well as it will improve the process of destruction of rocket fuels of hydrazine type and cleaning of areas from the soil polluted with hydrazine. The regular control of fed coal for its radio-nuclides concentrations and ash and slag control for their heavy metals and carcinogenic agents contents assure production of ecologically pure products. Also, there will be perform regular and continuous control of flue gas composition and its soot concentrations.
The following organizations are involved in this Project implementation:
1. Combustion Problems Institute (CPI) (head institution), Almaty, Kazakhstan;
2. D.V. Sokolskii Institute of Organic Catalysis and Electro-Chemistry (IOCE), Almaty, Kazakhstan;
3. Affiliated State enterprise - Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Republican State enterprise - National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK's ASE INP RSE NNC), Almaty, Kazakhstan.
All organizations have available required production areas and laboratories to properly solve this Project's problems. The staff involved in this Project implementation is notable for high professional skills and enable to solve all targets and aims of this Projects.
This Project is referred to the category of applied investigations, including as constitutive parts the fundamental researches and developments.
This Project implementation will result in the following achievements:
- Elaboration of technological scheme of electric power plant for complex coal utilization;
- Creation of catalysts for nitrogen oxides decomposition, sulfur sedimentation and oxygen containing hydrocarbons synthesis processes;
- Elaboration of technology of catalysts production and development of laboratory synthesis unit;
- Production of acid resistant materials based on the activated slag and flue ash; elaboration of technology of acid resistant materials production and development of laboratory units;
- Elaboration of binders based on the hydrazine and technology of slag based building bricks and blocks production;
- Development of equipment and technology of flue gas purification and separation;
- Facilities to control: flue gas composition, radio-nuclides, heavy metals and carcinogenic agents concentrations in the raw materials and final products.
This Project is completely conform to the aims and targets of the ISTS because it will contribute to improve local population employment and re-qualification of scientists involved in the weapon elaboration and production and it is aimed at improving of ecological situation in global scale. The scientific importance of this Project consists in the investigation of such fundamental problems as a synthesis of oxygen containing hydrocarbons from CO2 and acid resistant and building materials production based on the slag and ash utilization. The commercial importance of this Project is evident one taking into consideration that refused industrial wastes will be utilized in efficient production that will reduce the final production costs and improve the final product competitiveness and will assure the market saturation with local required products.
This Project be implemented with participation of some foreign collaborators whose cooperation will be carried out in the following ways:
- Improvement of developments in process of this Project implementation;
- Coordination of scientific researches carried out under this Project;
- Jointly held symposiums, working seminars, conferences and consultations;
- Verification of results using independent methods and equipment;
- Consultation on Intellectual Property Rights in cases of joint inventions;
- Joint commercialization of this Project results.
Terms of this Project implementation - 36 months.
The following works should be accomplished during this Project implementation:
- Elaboration of ecologically safe electric power plant with complete utilization of all wastes;
- Development of facilities making available the fine dispersion slag and minerals milling and activation;
- Investigation of physical and chemical properties of slag of some particular coal types;
- Elaboration of compositions and technology of acid resistant materials production;
- Elaboration of formulations and technology of catalysts production for synthesis of oxygen containing hydrocarbons based on CO2, catalysts for nitrogen oxides decomposition;
- Elaboration of technology of oxygen containing hydrocarbons synthesis;
- Elaboration of technology of flue gas purification and separation;
- Elaboration of technology of hydrazine based binders production;
- Elaboration of technology of slag based building bricks production;
- Elaboration of methods and instruments of remote control of flame composition in a furnace;
- Elaboration of technology and facilities of continuous control of radio-nuclides, heavy metals and carcinogenic agents concentrations in the source coal and final products;
- Elaboration of optimum control of radio-nuclides, heavy toxic metals, light toxic elements, carcinogenic substances, and free radicals in the power plant.
For each task there will be designed and manufactured the laboratory unit to control and refine characteristics of applied technology. In the future such laboratory units will serve as a base for production of industrial models of the equipment provided for each particular power plant.