Epidemiology of Plague
Investigation of Plague Epidemiology and Epizootiology for the Purpose of Biosafety of the Population in Issyk-Kul Region of Kyrgyzstan
Tech Area / Field
- BIO-SFS/Biosafety and BioSecurity/Biotechnology
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Weaver L M
Issyk-Kul State University named after K. Tynystanov, Kyrgyzstan, Karakol
- Karakol Department of Quarantine and Dangerous Infections, Kyrgyzstan, Karakol
- Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Canada, AB, Lethbridge
Project summaryThe project involves the investigation of the epizootic of natural plague disease in the Issyk-Kul region of Kyrgyzstan where some endemic areas of the disease in this region have not been inspected for infection in the last 20 years. The potentially dangerous area of approximately 250-300, 000 hectares identified will be sanitized by chemical disinsection of rodent holes. The factors contributing to the circulation of plague pathogen in the different natural-climatic zones of Issyk-Kul will be determined.
The results obtained will help to evaluate the circulation of plague in this wide region with differing landscapes and climatic conditions. It will further help in determining the effectiveness of using the sanitation methods. Thus, the techniques will enable the control of the spread of infection and ensure the biosafety of the population in the border region between 3 neighboring states: Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and China. The scientists that will take part in this project are well experienced in the investigation of plague epizootics in the alpine area, including identification of pathogens by different methods (bacteriological, serological, molecular, biological), and eradication of disease sources. This is evidenced through participation in the recent interregional workshop on “Biosafety risk assessment” organized by the “Biosafety Association for Central Asia and the Caucasus”, in Almaty, Kazakhstan (May 2009), and international projects, including projects financed by ISTC (“Evaluation of spatial correlations of the contamination of the Kyrgyz Republic area with anthrax pathogens.” This is in collaboration with the Republican Centre for Quarantine and Especially Dangerous Infections, (ISTC - КR-1101). The activities of proposed project will help to promote international scientific and technical collaborations in the field of plague epidemiology and create long-term prospects for control of the disease spread within the framework of International Scientific Association.
The foreign collaborator, Dr. K. Amoako of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, will assist in the selection of equipment and chemicals, research development, and organization of field testing.
Plague epizootic at the natural source area will be conducted by an epidemiological group and involve the hunting of marmots and other rodents. Biological, bacteriological and serological analyses for the presence of plague pathogen will be carried out at the laboratories of the Karakol Department of Quarantine and Dangerous Infection. They are equipped with secure fridges and freezers and are well corresponding to any work with especially dangerous pathogens, including plague. The epidemiological mobile group will consist of 14 people made up of: baсteriologist, zoologist, parasitologist, 2 technical assistants, 5 disinsectors, 1 groom, 2 drivers, 1 cook. The work duration of the group will be 60 days in summer (approximately from June 15 until August 14). The mobile group will work in the Saridghas, Verchnenaryn and Ton regions in the first, second and third year, respectively. This covers an area of approximately 250-300,000 ha of mountains, gorges and river valleys.
The sanitation of the area would be conducted by the method of pulverization (according to the practical experience of the Kazakh Scientific Center of Quarantine and Zoonoses Infections) using the newly developed, insecticide- acaricidical powder - ”Deltametrina” instead of the previous widely used DDT.
Determination of the presence of the plague pathogen will be based on serological, biological, and bacteriological testing according to the methods for diagnosis, treatment and prophylactics of plague, as described in the All-union Anti-plague Research Institute Manual “Microbe”, Saratov, Russia, 1974, 1977. For the biological method, the sterile white mouse bioassay will be used. The bacteriological method will be based on the susceptibility of the culture isolates to the plague bacteriophage (pure and diluted 1:10, 1:100, and 1:1000) and to the bacteriophage L-413 “C”. In addition, the diagnosis of plague will be conducted based on the typical morphology of the cells in smears from animal samples, typical morphology of the growing cell colonies, peculiarities of the cell growth in broth, pathological and anatomical changes of investigated animals, presence of pathogens of certain form and colour in the smears from the organs of investigated animals, and isolation of the plague bacteria from culture. All these analyses will be conducted in a laboratory of the Karakol Department of Quarantine and Dangerous Infection by the epidemiological group.
The long term storage of the plague specimens in the case of positive testing of field samples will be carried out at the main repository of the Republican Centre for Quarantine and Especially Dangerous Infections in Bishkek in accordance with Instructions of the Ministry of Health Service of Kyrgyzstan.