Siberian Chemical Combine
Joint Stock Company “Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises” (JSC "SGChE")
1, Kurchatov pr.,Seversk,636039
- 0040 - Nuclear Materials Accounting
- 0338 - Uranium Hexafluoride Reprocessing
- 0561 - Tomsk-7 Graphite Contamination
- 0896 - Destruction of Mixed Liquid Waste
- 1193 - Fuel Materials with Non-Uranium Diluent
- 1356 - Model for Nuclear Materials Control and Accounting
- 1409 - Contamination of Graphite Sleeves
- 1410 - Plutonium Oxide Microspheres
- 1416 - Plasmochemical Production of MOX Fuel
- 1722 - Radiatioactive Contamination in Storage Vaults
- 2506 - Immobilization of Alpha-Active Wastes in Porous Composites
- 2742 - Application of Nano-Sized Powders
- 3053 - Combustion Mode for Radioactive Waste Immobilization
- 3187 - Remote control in a conservation technology of nuclear reactors
- 3607 - Radioactive Graphite Handling
- 3890 - Composition of Fluorine Produced by Electrolysis
- 4052 - Fire Protective Coatings
- Nuclear Safety and Safeguarding / Fission Reactors
- Radioactive Waste Treatment / Environment
- Decommissioning / Fission Reactors
- Water Pollution and Control / Environment
- Reactor Fuels and Fuel Engineering / Fission Reactors
- Solid Waste Pollution and Control / Environment
- Materials Synthesis and Processing / Materials
- Basic and Synthetic Chemistry / Chemistry
- Composites / Materials
- Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Process Engineering / Chemistry
- Fuels / Non-Nuclear Energy
- Engineering Materials / Manufacturing Technology
- Ceramics / Materials
- Batteries and Components / Non-Nuclear Energy
- Reactor Engineering and NPP / Fission Reactors
- Isotopes / Fission Reactors
- Optics and Lasers / Physics
- Sensors and Signal Processing / Information and Communications
- Detection Devices / Instrumentation
- High Performance Computing and Networking / Information and Communications
- High Performance Metals and Alloys / Materials
- Analytical Chemistry / Chemistry
- Other / Other
BriefSiberian Chemical Combine was founded in 1949 to "eliminate the US monopoly in nuclear armaments". Currently SCC is one of the world's largest nuclear centers and a manufacturer of sophisticated technique and science intensive products. Over 50 years of operation the Combine has gained an invaluable experience in commercial production and reprocessing of weapons grade and power production grade fissionable materials. A number of 'high technologies', introduced at SCC have never been used either in the world or in the national practice.
SCC today means:
- Development of conversion technologies
- Development of foreign trade relations
- Production of consumer goods
- Organization of jobs for thousands of people
- Generation of a considerable volume of thermal and electric power for Tomsk, Seversk and Tomsk region.
ResearchSCC integrates high radiation and nuclear hazard industries and facilities, engaged in the development, production, operation, storage, transportation, utilization of nuclear weapons and radiation-hazard materials and goods.
SCC was created as a single system of the nuclear fuel cycle, whose basic task implied creation of nuclear weapon components on the base of fissionable materials (highly enriched uranium and plutonium), and build-up of fissionable materials in different forms (including power production application). Currently SCC integrates five principle plants and a TPP, and a number of auxiliary units, supporting the Combine operation.
The Siberian Chemical Combine incorporates the following facilities:
Isotope Separation Plant
Production of enriched uranium for nuclear power.
The plant was put into operation in 1953. It is engaged in isotope U-235 enrichment of uranium. ISP makes use of an advanced centrifuge technology. An individual centrifuge was built there in1992, which allowed one to enrich uranium, generated in power reactors in addition to the natural uranium enrichment. There is also a special facility for mixing highly enriched uranium (HEU) and for its conversion to low enriched power uranium (LEU). Apart from uranium enrichment the plant is also engaged in the production of stable isotopes, like xenon-124, xenon-126, xenon-128, tin-112, tin-119, selenium-74 etc. Isotope Separation Plant provide services in enrichment of power uranium to western companies in compliance with the existing contracts and agreements.
Originally the Plant was intended for build-up of weapons grade plutonium, but later on following the commissioning of NPP-2 it started being used for heat and power generation. Two industrial graphite - uranium ADE - type reactors (ADE-4 and ADE-5) were put into operation in 1964 and 1965 respectively. A heat line, running to Tomsk was built in 1973, which ensured supply of cheap thermal power to the city. Currently the reactors provide 30-35% of heat for the housing area of Tomsk, over 50% - for Seversk and for industrial sites of the Combine. ADE-4 and ADE-5 will operate in such a mode till December 31, 2000, by which time an issue of conversion (modernization) of the reactor core (i.e., reactor transfer to the operation mode, using uranium fuel, enriched with U-235 isotopes up to 90%) will be settled in compliance with the "Gor - Chernomyrdin" Agreement, making plutonium build-up in the reactors impossible. Following this the both reactors will supposedly be operated up to 2005-2007. By this time SCC plans to decide upon the construction of energy-replacing sources like AST-500. It is well known, that three more nuclear reactors were in operation at SCC till 1990, which were then shut down and decommissioned. Currently the reactors are under entombment to be moved to a long-term stability condition.
Reactor Plant -5
The facility is engaged in the following:
Organization of conversion industries: participation in preparatory activities for constructing AST-500. Decommissioning of NPP-1 reactors and of the entire industrial site. The Siberian nuclear power plant was commissioned in 1958 and shut down on August 14, 1992. Currently the reactors are being dismantled and all the reactors are being moved to a long-term stability state. Operation of the remaining equipment. Research work to obtain data on the properties of materials, used in the reactors. Production of gaseous and liquid nitrogen and oxygen for the operating needs of SCC divisions and for medical applications; manufacture of plastic goods etc. Establishment of conversion productions: participation in preparatory activities for constructing AST-500.
Manufacture of spare parts and equipment for the Siberian Chemical Combine. As soon as the first SCC facilities were put into operation a need arose for organizing a centralized repair service. A mechanical-repair shop started operating in 1952, a year later a construction-repair shop was opened and in 1965 the both shops were combined to form Mechanical-Repair Works with the personnel making up 1200 people. MRW is currently one of the largest divisions of the Combine. It's production area makes up 78000 m2 with 1117 items of equipment being installed therein. The Works' power consumption is 12 M KW/h per a year. The personnel amounts to 1917 people, including workers of over 100 occupations. The main tasks of the Mechanical-Repair Works are focused on satisfying the needs of SCC for spare parts; performing installation and repair of equipment, buildings and structures; manufacturing non-standard equipment; producing consumer goods (CG), general purpose industrial products; providing services to the population.
Reprocessing of irradiated uranium bricks to extract uranium and plutonium. The plant, commissioned in 1961, is engaged in the radiochemical reprocessing of spent uranium fuel of industrial graphite-uranium reactors of the Reactor Plant, using sorption-extraction technology. The flow-sheet of reprocessing recovered uranium oxides (including "RT" class) from the power reactors, allowing one to purify uranium from plutonium, neptunium, fission products, including U-232 decay products, is operating at the plant. The main product of the plant is purified uranium raw material for the Sublimate Plant. The resulting plutonium dioxide (unsuitable for weapons application) is warehoused in a special storage facility. One of the sections of the plant produces ultradispersed powders of metal oxides.
Reprocessing of uranium-containing products, including highly enriched uranium.
The Plant was put into operation in 1954. Its main products are uranium oxides and uranium hexafluoride. Both natural and recovered uranium, purified at the Radiochemical Plant, are used as raw materials. Mixing of products of different marks is excluded. A facility for fluorination of highly enriched uranium oxides, delivered from SCC Chemico-Metallurgical Plant and from PA "Mayak" is built and is operating at the plant. HEU hexafluoride is supplied to the Isotope Separation Plant for mixing, and a part of it is transported to the Urals Electrochemical Combine (UECC) in compliance with plans and schedules, approved by the Department of Nuclear-Chemical Production of RF Minatom. Apart from uranium oxides and uranium hexafluoride SP produces waterless hydrogen fluoride, technical fluorine, chlorine trifluoride, and iron and rare earth metal fluorides. Waterless fluorine production waste is used as binders in construction.
Utilization of special products. Production of magnetic alloys and magnets on their base. Production of ultradispersed powders.
The plant was put into operation in 1961. It is intended for manufacturing metal products of uranium and plutonium by means of reduction and refining smelting, mechanical processing and compaction. The plant is using a sorption technology for processing uranium and plutonium waste and for their purification from impurities. There are special lines at the plant, producing high-energy magnets and magnetic alloys based on neodymium-iron-boron, and ultradispersed metal powders. The plant is engaged in reprocessing and purification of highly enriched weapons grade plutonium to the level of monoxide - oxide with its subsequent delivery to the Sublimate Plant for conversion to uranium hexafluoride and further mixing to low-enriched uranium (LEU), which is done at the Isotope Separation Plant.
Water and Power Supply Plant "GidroEnergoSnab" (GES)
Supply of thermal power, artesian and industrial water to the users. Organization of waste water discharge.
Facility "B" (# 20) which is now the Water and Power Supply Plant, was established in March, 1953 due to the necessity for exercising pre-startup management of structures and equipment, accepting systems of industrial water supply. The activities of GidroEnergoSnab are mainly focused on reliable and uninterrupted water supply to the users assigned, operation of hydraulic systems, equipment and communications and thermal power networks, operated by the plant; repair and maintenance of buildings, structures, communications etc.
Thermoelectric Power Plant (TPP)
Production of thermal and electric power.
The TPP was being commissioned in a step-by-step character during 1953 - 1961. It has been producing heat and power to satisfy the demands of the Combine and residents of Seversk. The Thermoelectric Power Plant incorporates 15 turbine units and 18 boilers, which use Kusnetsk coal. Currently the TPP is under reconstruction: the equipment service life amounts to 250-300%. However the reconstructions process moves forward very slowly because of the lack of funding.
Railway Shop (RWS)
Transportation of people and cargoes.
The Railway Shop was established in July, 1949. It was intended for transportation of cargoes and equipment to the combine facilities under construction and for delivery of inert cargoes and concrete to three concrete plants under the "KhimStroy", which was in operation during 50ies - 60ies. The length of rail ways between stations makes up 38 km, the entire length of the ways is about 130 km. There are five railway stations, four parks, locomotive and car sheds, a park of diesel locomotives, cars, cranes, railway- and snow-cleaning machines. RWS ensures a 24-hour transportation of cargoes from Tomsk-II station to points of destination (SCC divisions), transportation of caroes between SCC plants and outside users; transportation of RCP and CMP personnel by passenger trains. RWS staff makes up 570 people.
Research and Design Institute (RDI)
The Institute is engaged in the research and development activities, manufacture of pilot and commercial batches of various materials: ionogenic lithium salts, ultradispersed metal powders, stable isotopes etc.
The Research and Design Institute (RDI) represents the most significant part of the science and technical potential of the Combine. Among its employees (700) there are 25 doctors of sciences and PhDs, 12 Laureates of the Lenin and State Awards, engineers and highly qualified workers. A considerable research and experimental base, a system of final stage design units are available at the Institute. RDI is designed to develop novel materials and technologies, to improve equipment, to design means of automation and process monitoring. The Institute has made a significant contribution to the Combine's industry conversion. Designs, developed at the Institute were used to build a system of HEU-LEU installations (reprocessing of highly enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium); many Combine's industries are being restructured; protection of nuclear materials from SCC plants is being improved etc. Apart from research and development (R&D) the experimental facilities of the Institute are being used for build-up of pilot batches of unique materials - ultradispersed metal powders, inorganic fluorides, including lithium complexes, working substances for separation of stable isotopes and reduction of isotope-enriched materials.